Everything From A Single Para | English Aptitude Test

These Questions Completely based on Single “Indian Express” Editorial. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand.
Indian Express : 22 August 2019
Caste politics is being reinvigorated by actors who traditionally opposed it

The BJP is implementing it at the time of candidate selection and in expanding caste-based reservations. The judiciary is making it easier by relaxing aspects of past jurisprudence.

The reservation question is back in the Sangh Parivar. A few days ago, RSS chief Mohan Bhagwat called for a “conversation in a harmonious atmosphere between those in favour of quota and those against it”: “Those who favour reservation should speak keeping in mind the interests of those who were against it, and similarly those who opposed it should do vice versa,” he said. It seems that the conversation should take place first within the Sangh Parivar, where everybody does not seem to be on the same page on caste-based reservation. Traditionally, the Sangh Parivar has opposed caste-based politics and criticised the use of jativad as an electoral tool in its two incarnations, reservation and vote banks. Hindu nationalists denounced the Mandal report and VP Singh’s decision to implement it. In August 1990, Organiser protested: “The havoc politics of reservation is playing with the social fabric is unimaginable. It provides a premium for mediocrity, encourages brain-drain and sharpens caste-divide”. Two decades later, the situation has changed on both fronts, not only reservation, but also elections. In the last Lok Sabha elections, the BJP factored in caste as a major variable in its candidate-selection. Its standard strategy consisted in federating smaller castes against the larger ones, which were often more affluent. This was in tune with the party’s policy regarding chief ministers’ selection: The BJP appointed a non-Maratha CM in Maharashtra, a non-Patel CM in Gujarat, a non-Jat CM in Haryana. In the last general election, this strategy was applied to candidate selection in the OBCs and SCs. In UP, the BJP targeted the non-Yadav OBCs, who often belong to the poorer strata of society and usually resent Yadav domination, particularly the way they corner most of the quotas. While the Yadavs are traditionally associated with the SP, the BJP successfully wooed the non-Yadavs. Whereas 27 per cent of SP candidates were Yadavs in 2019, Yadavs represented only 1.3 per cent of the candidates of the BJP which gave tickets to 7.7 per cent Kurmis and 16.7 per cent “other OBCs”, who often came from small caste groups (data drawn from the Social Profile of the Indian National and Provincial Elected Representatives, created by Ashoka University and Sciences Po). This strategy translated into votes if one goes by the National Election Survey of CSDS-Lokniti: While 60 per cent of Yadavs voted for the SP-BSP alliance, 72 per cent of “other OBCs” supported the BJP, showing that the OBCs were polarised along jati lines. In the same way, the BJP has become the rallying point of non-Jatav voters against the BSP. Once again, the BJP cashed in on the resentment of smaller Dalit groups, accusing the Jatavs of monopolising reservation. In UP, the BSP gave more than 20 per cent of its tickets to Jatavs, whereas the BJP nominated 5 per cent of Jatavs only, 7.7 per cent of Pasis and 9 per cent of “other SCs”. Certainly, the BSP-SP got 75 per cent of the Jatav vote, but it received only 42 per cent of the “other SCs” vote, against 48 per cent which went to the BJP — the winner of 15 of 17 “SC seats”. After the election, the BJP has continued with the same strategy in UP by appointing a Kurmi as party chief and promoting small OBC groups at the expense of the Jatavs. The Yogi Adityanath government has included 17 small OBC castes (Kahar, Kashyap, Kewat, Nishad, Gond, Bhar, Prajapati, Rajbhar, Batham, Bind, Turha, Manjhi, Mallah, Kumhar, Dheevar, Dheemar and Machua) in the list of SCs. These castes, which represent about 15 per cent of the state’s population, have been asking for this change. Now, they will have more opportunities as they will not have to compete any more with Yadavs and Kurmis. The Dalits, on the contrary, resent this move which is bound to intensify competition for quotas within the SC category. Not only did Mayawati object that only Parliament and the president had the power to do so, but the BJP minister for social justice and empowerment, Thawarchand Gehlot, said the same thing before the Rajya Sabha. Even if this decision is eventually declared unconstitutional, these jatis may be grateful to the BJP during the coming by-elections in UP.
The same reasoning applies to the policy of the BJP Chief Minister, Devendra Fadnavis, regarding the Marathas. In 2014, during the last Maharashtra election campaign, the BJP slammed the Congress government’s decision to reserve 16 per cent of government jobs and seats in educational institutions for Marathas. After forming government, the party changed its mind. In November 2014 the Bombay High Court stayed the ordinance regarding reservations for the Marathas because, according to the court, they were not backward. Immediately, Fadnavis declared: “We will appeal in SC on the HC ruling. We will take measures to ensure that the quota remains”. Fadnavis first appointed a new “Backward Classes Commission”, the Gaikwad Commission, which declared that “The Maratha class of citizens having been declared socially and educationally backward class of citizens are entitled to reservation benefits and advantages enshrined in Article 15(4) and 16(4) of the Constitution of India”. Following the Commission’s recommendation, the Fadnavis government decided to grant a 16 per cent quota to Marathas in government jobs and educational institutions run by the state. This decision was approved unanimously by the legislature. The BJP innovated only on one ground: It had a law passed to create a new group called “Socially and Educationally Backward Class”, made only of the Marathas, which was granted a 16 per cent quota outside existing reservations for SCs, STs and OBCs in order not to alienate the BJP voters from the non-dominant Dalits and OBCs that the party was wooing in Maharashtra like elsewhere. This time, the Bombay HC upheld the decision of the Maharashtra government in spite of the fact that Marathas had not suddenly become more backward and the additional quota took reservation up to 68 per cent (well beyond the 50 per cent threshold the SC laid down decades ago). The judges — who simply reduced the 16 per cent quota to 12-13 per cent — had to consider “exceptional circumstances and an extraordinary situation”. On July 12, the Supreme Court did not stay the HC order, simply sought the Maharashtra government’s response on pleas challenging the quota. This move may help the Fadnavis government to show its goodwill to the Marathas till the state elections.

Directions (1-3): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 1 to 3. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.
Traditionally, the Sangh Parivar has opposed caste-based politics and criticised the use of jativad as an …….1…….tool in its two ……….2………, reservation and vote banks. Hindu nationalists denounced the Mandal report and VP Singh’s decision to implement it. In August 1990, Organiser protested: “The ……..3…… politics of reservation is playing with the social fabric is unimaginable. It provides a premium for mediocrity, encourages brain-drain and sharpens caste-divide”.
Q1. a)debacle        b)electoral         c)finesse       d) all       e) None

Q2. a)haunt           b)nod               c)incarnations   d) all      e) None

Q3. a)havoc           b)observatory        c)batter        d) all       e) None

 

Directions (4-6) Choose the similar meaning
Q4. Mediocrity
a)paw          b)adequacy     c)encroachment          d)all        e) None

Q5. Affluent
a)erected        b)omitted       c)prosperous       d)bolster       e) None

Q6. Monopolising
a)control        b)engross          c)corner           d)all           e) None

Directions: (7-8) choose the opposite meaning
Q7. Intensify
a)reiterate       b)lopsided          c)dwindle         d)waiver      e) None

Q8. Unanimously
a)imprisonment      b)cleave         c)raise         d)tyranny        e) None

Direction (9-10): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.
Q9. This time, the Bombay HC upheld the decision of the Maharashtra government in spite of the fact that Marathas had not suddenly become more backward and the additional quota took reservation up to 68 per cent.
a) in spite of the                  b)in spite the                 c)despite of the

d)although the                   e) None

Q10. No did Mayawati object that only Parliament and the president had the power to do so, but the BJP minister for social justice and empowerment, Thawarchand Gehlot, said the same thing.
a)did Mayawati             b)Not only did Mayawati                 c)Only did Mayawati

d)do Mayawati               e) None

Directions (11-12): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. Once again, the BJP cashed in on the………… of smaller Dalit groups, accusing the Jatavs of monopolising reservation.
a)connived             b)tranche           c) resentment           d) All           e) None

Q12. It seems that the ……….. should take place first within the Sangh Parivar, where everybody does not seem to be on the same page on caste-based reservation.
a)conversation          b)rummaging        c)ghastly          d) All           e) None

Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
a) In the same way, the BJP has become the rallying point of non-Jatav voters against the BSP.
b) This strategy translated into votes if one goes by the National Election Survey of CSDS-Lokniti: While 60 per cent of Yadavs voted for the SP-BSP alliance, 72 per cent of “other OBCs” supported the BJP, showing that the OBCs were polarised along jati lines.
c) who often came from small caste groups (data drawn from the Social Profile of the Indian National and Provincial Elected Representatives, created by Ashoka University and Sciences Po).
d) While the Yadavs are traditionally associated with the SP, the BJP successfully wooed the non-Yadavs.
e) Whereas 27 per cent of SP candidates were Yadavs in 2019, Yadavs represented only 1.3 per cent of the candidates of the BJP which gave tickets to 7.7 per cent Kurmis and 16.7 per cent “other OBCs.
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?
a) A        b) B            c) C           d) D         e) E 

Q14. Which is the Last step after rearrangement?
a) A        b) B            c) C           d) D         e) E 

Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
a) A        b) B            c) C           d) D         e) E 

Directions (16-17): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.
Q16. Once again,(a)/ the BJP cashed the resentment(b)/ of smaller Dalit groups, accusing the Jatavs(c)/ of monopolising reservation(d)/(e)/
a) a              b) b              c) c             d) d              e) e

Q17. After the election(a)/ the BJP has continued with the same strategy(b)/ in UP by appointing a Kurmi as party chief (c)/and promoting small OBC groups at the expense of the Jatavs(d)/(e)/
a) a              b) b              c) c             d) d              e) e

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.
Q18. According to passage what is the BJP strategy in appointing CM in state?
a)caste difference         b) appoint those who belong to the poorer strata of society            c)corner most of the quotas         d)All             e) None

Q19. According to passage on why In 2014, during the election campaign, the BJP slammed the Congress ?
a)Maratha class of citizens having been declared socially and educationally backward class b)government’s decision to reserve 16 per cent of government jobs and seats in educational institutions for Marathas.         c)government’s decision to reserve 16 per cent quota for all          d)All      e) None

Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I) The BSP-SP got 75 per cent of the Jatav vote, but it received only 40 per cent of the other SCs” vote.
(II) November 2014 the Bombay High Court stayed the ordinance regarding reservations for the Marathas
(III) The Yogi Adityanath government has included 27 small OBC castes

a) Only (II)        b) Both (I) and (II)        c) Both (II) and (III)         d) All are incorrect        e) None

 

Answers With Explanation

Ans.1, b it means relating to elections or electors.
Ans.2, c it means a person who embodies in the flesh a deity, spirit, or quality.
Ans.3, a it means widespread destruction.
Ans.4, a it means the quality or state of being mediocre.
Ans.5, c it means (especially of a group or area) having a great deal of money; wealthy.
Ans.6, d it means (of an organization or group) obtain exclusive possession or control of (a trade, commodity, or service).
Ans.7, c Intensify means become or make more intense. dwindle means (of something unpleasant or severe) become less intense or widespread.
Ans.8, b Unanimous means (of two or more people) fully in agreement. Cleave means separate or be separated into parts.
Ans.9, a Despite” means “even though,” “notwithstanding,” or “regardless of.” It’s the opposite of “because of/due to,” and can be used with a noun or gerund.
Despite not having an umbrella, I walked home in the rain.
“In spite of” means exactly the same thing and is used exactly the same way as “despite.”
She had difficulty communicating in French in spite of all her years of study.
Ans.10, b The war caused not only destruction and death but also generations of hatred between the two communities.
The car not only is economical but also feels good to drive.
Ans.11, c it means bitter indignation at having been treated unfairly.
Ans.12, a it means a talk, especially an informal one, between two or more people, in which news and ideas are exchanged.
Ans.13, e is correct. Because the correct sequence is DECBA.
Ans.14, a is correct.
Ans.15, b is correct.
Ans.16, b use cashed in on after BJP
(on something)
to earn a lot of money at something; to make a profit at something. This is a good year for drug stocks, and you can cash in on it if you’re smart. It’s too late to cash in on that particular clothing fad.
Ans.17, e no error.
Ans.18, a according to passage a is correct.
Ans.19, b according to passage b is correct.
Ans.20, a according to passage a is correct.

 

Click Here To Read The Paragraph

 

 

NO COMMENTS:

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *