Everything From A Single Para | English Aptitude Test | Editorial

These Questions Completely based on Single “The Mint” Editorial. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand.

The Mint Editorial: 23 August 2019
Data deprivation makes cyber crime difficult to tackle

In recent times, there have been many instances of the hard-earned money of Indians being taken out of bank accounts and charges loaded onto credit cards through online frauds. As a nation making a huge transition to a cashless economy, public faith in the digital system needs to be consistently reinforced. All the players involved, including banks, telecom companies, financial service providers, technology platforms, social media platforms, e-commerce companies and the government, need to play a responsible role in ensuring innocent citizens do not undergo the trauma of suffering losses.

The customer also has a responsibility to maintain basic cyber hygiene, which includes following practices and taking precautions to keep one’s sensitive information organized, safe and secure. Another emerging casualty of such cybercrimes is the emerging “startup” ecosystem. We are beginning to see multiple cases where customers of genuine startups, unicorns and Indian businesses have been subjected to online fraud, and these customers initially presume that it is the customer care departments of the companies that have conned them, as we see in many of the cases that get filed.

This is a dangerous trend. Not only does it shake people’s faith in digital systems, the scepticism vis-a-vis online transactions also hurts the potential of emerging companies, tomorrow’s successes which could help take India to the $5 trillion economy that the country aspires to. Let us look at the modus operandi of some of the recent internet-based financial frauds affecting companies in the digital and e-commerce space. Fraudsters usually start by creating various websites or accounts on social-media platforms that host some content to make them look deceptively similar to the authentic companies’ websites or social media interfaces.

Such websites and social media accounts list fake customer care numbers for the relevant brands. When a customer tries to search for a company name by using a search engine, the customer care numbers or email IDs that pop up as results (sometimes even the top search result, thanks to the bidding process for adwords in search engines) are often these fraudulent ones. It is easy to be taken in. There could be worse to come.

The customer, with little reason to suspect that the search result is not genuine, may end up calling such a fake number, and get entrapped by fraudsters into sharing his or her bank information (and sometimes even a one-time password), which enables the anonymous con artists to siphon off money from the customer’s account.

At times, these fraudsters send online links, asking customers to share their Unified Payments Interface details or other such information; in other cases, unsuspecting customers are asked to download screen mirroring apps, through which they take control of or gain access to information on mobile phones. Even the income tax department has not been spared, with people getting messages from a fraudulent source that masks itself as an income tax authority and sends a message asking them to claim tax refunds by sharing a link.

Directions (1-3): In the above editorial given below there are blanks which are numbered from 1 to 3. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.
Another emerging ………..1……….. of such cybercrimes is the emerging “startup” ecosystem. We are beginning to see multiple cases where customers of genuine startups, unicorns and Indian businesses have been subjected to online fraud, and these customers initially ……..2…….. that it is the customer care departments of the companies that have conned them, as we see in many of the cases that get filed.

This is a dangerous trend. Not only does it shake people’s faith in digital systems, the ……….3……… vis-a-vis online transactions also hurts the potential of emerging companies, tomorrow’s successes which could help take India to the $5 trillion economy that the country aspires to.
Q1. a)fratricide    b) ecocide        c)casualty      d) all         e) None

Q2. a)presume         b)creed       c)cide         d) all        e) None

Q3. a)skepticism        b)assume       c)postulate       d) all      e) None

Directions (4-6) Choose the similar meaning
Q4. Deceptively
a)bifurcate           b)misleading          c)biocide           d)all         e) None

Q5. Fraudulent
a)counterfeit         b)Android            c)illicit              d)all         e) None

Q6. Entrapped
a)enmesh              b)entangle          c)snare           d)all           e) None

Directions: (7-8) choose the opposite meaning
Q7. Enforcement
a)geophilla       b)disregard       c)ambidextrous         d)implementation         e) None

Q8. Unresponsive
a)forthcoming          b)geoid       c)demomania           d)all              e) None

Direction (9-10): Based on the above Editorial which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.
Q9. This has often raised calls for complete data localization, which could have been avoided had a collaborative mechanism for data access, based on agreed criteria, been put in place.
a)This has                b) This has often               c)This sometimes
d)This often              e) None

Q10. As many cases aren’t even reported, in cases that are, the investigations make little or no progress due to lack of access to data.
a)As many as cases                   b)As many cases             c)while many cases
d)when many cases                 e) None

Directions (11-12): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. According to the above editorial fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. The Srikrishna Commission ………. that data be stored in the country either directly or through mirror servers to serve law enforcement needs.
a)anathema             b)allude             c)recommended           d) All         e) None

Q12. The bilateral ………. of the India-US Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty is a bit outdated and does not seem to work.
a)amorphous            b)mechanism         c)antagonistic         d) All         e) None

Directions (13-15): As per the above editorial rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
a) Such websites and social media accounts list fake customer care numbers for the relevant brands.
b) When a customer tries to search for a company name by using a search engine, the customer care numbers or email IDs that pop up.
c) Let us look at the modus operandi of some of the recent internet-based financial frauds affecting companies in the digital and e-commerce space.
d) Fraudsters usually start by creating various websites or accounts on social-media platforms that host some content to make them look deceptively similar to the authentic companies’ websites or social media interfaces.
e) As results (sometimes even the top search result, thanks to the bidding process for ad words in search engines) are often these fraudulent ones. It is easy to be taken in.
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?
a) A        b) B            c) C           d) D           e) E 

Q14. Which is the Last step after rearrangement?
a) A        b) B            c) C           d) D           e) E 

Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
a) A        b) B            c) C           d) D           e) E 

Directions (16-17): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice. Refer the above mentioned editorial to get the clues if any
Q16. The customer, with few reason to suspect that the search result is not genuine,(a)/ may end up calling such a fake number, and get entrapped by fraudsters into sharing his or(b)/ her bank information which enables the anonymous (c)/con artists to siphon off money from the customer’s account(d)/(e)/
a) a            b) b          c) c            d) d          e) e

Q17. The customer also has a responsibility(a)/ to maintain basic cyber hygiene, which includes(b)/ following practices and(c)/ taking precautions to keep one’s sensitive information organized, safe and secure(d)/(e)/
a) a            b) b          c) c            d) d          e) e

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the Editorial.
Q18. According to passage how fraudsters usually start doing fraud?
a)creating various websites or accounts on social-media      b)create platforms similar to authentic companies           c)create social media interfaces alike real one’s          d)All         e) None

Q19. According to passage what is the recommendation of The Srikrishna Commission?
a) bilateral mechanism of the India-US Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty is a bit outdated and does not seem to work.          b)data be stored in the country either directly or through mirror servers to serve law enforcement needs.           c) US Cloud Act, however, enables law enforcement authorities in India to request electronic content directly         d)All        e) None

Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I) While privacy and data protection are necessary, and data localization may pose its own business challenges, India needs to work out a way to crack cyber frauds and crimes.
(II) customer, with little reason to suspect that the search result is not genuine, may end up calling such a fake number.
(III) Even the income tax department has not been spared, with people getting messages from a fraudulent source.

a) Only (III) b) Both (I) and (II) c) Both (II) and (III) d) All are correct e) None

Answers With Explanation

Ans.1, c it means a person killed or injured in a war or accident.
Ans.2, a it means suppose that something is the case on the basis of probability.
Ans.3, a it means a sceptical attitude; doubt as to the truth of something.
Ans.4, b it means in a way or to an extent that gives a misleading impression; to a lesser or greater extent than appears the case.
Ans.5, c it means obtained, done by, or involving deception, especially criminal deception.
Ans.6, d it means catch in or as in a trap.
Ans.7, b Enforcement means the act of compelling observance of or compliance with a law, rule, or obligation. Disregard means pay no attention to; ignore.
Ans.8, a Unresponsive means not responsive. Forthcoming means about to happen or appear.
Ans.9, b use often Often is an adverb meaning ‘many times on different occasions’. Like many other short adverbs, we use it in front position, in mid position (between the subject and the main verb, or after the modal verb or first auxiliary verb, or after be as a main verb) or in end position:
I often see Christine when I’m in town. She must do her shopping in the same places as me.
Ans.10, c it means As, when and while are conjunctions. In some uses as, when and while can mean the same, but they can also have slightly different meanings. We use them to introduce subordinate clauses.
We can use as, when and while to mean ‘during the time that’, to connect two events happening at the same time:
Another coach-load of people arrived as we were leaving.
We often use them with the past continuous to refer to background events:
When the men were out working in the field, I helped with milking the cows, feeding the calves and the pigs.
While he was working, he often listened to music.
I love that Indian restaurant on Mill Street.
D’you go there often?
Ans.11, c it means advised or suggested as good or suitable.
Ans.12, b it means a system of parts working together in a machine; a piece of machinery.
Ans.13, d is correct. Because the correct sequence is CDABE.
Ans.14, e is correct.
Ans.15, b is correct.
Ans.16, a use few in place of Little. Little refers to non-countable nouns, and is used with the singular form to indicate that something exists only in a small amount or to a slight degree. Few refers to countable nouns, and is used with the plural form to indicate not many persons or things. For example:
I’ve got little money left in my account.
Ben has few friends in London.
Ans.17, e no error.
Ans.18, d according to passage d is correct.
Ans.19, b according to passage b is correct.
Ans.20, d according to passage d is correct.

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