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Everything From A Single Para | English Aptitude Test

These Questions Completely based on Single “The Hindu” Editorial. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand. 


The Hindu: 19 August 2019

Taking on TB: On new anti-tuberculosis drug

Keeping the prices of the new drug low is essential for increased treatment uptake

The anti-tuberculosis drug pretomanid recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will be a game changer for treating people with extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and those who do not tolerate or respond to now available multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) drugs. That pretomanid is only the third drug in the last 40 years to get FDA approval highlights the scarcity of new drugs to treat TB bacteria that are rapidly developing resistance against most available drugs. The all-oral, three-drug regimen of bedaquiline, pretomanid, and linezolid (BPaL) had a 90% cure rate in a phase III trial in South Africa involving 109 participants. In contrast, the current treatment success rate for XDR-TB and MDR-TB is about 34% and 55%, respectively. Importantly, the regimen was found to be safe and effective in curing TB in people living with HIV. The safety and efficacy were tested in 1,168 patients in 19 clinical trials in 14 countries. Unlike 18-24 months needed to treat highly-resistant TB using nearly 20 drugs, the BPaL regimen took just six months, was better tolerated and more potent in clearing the bacteria. The shorter duration is more likely to increase adherence to therapy and improve treatment outcomes. According to the World Health Organisation, in 2017, there were an estimated 4.5 lakh people across the world with MDR-TB, of which India accounted for 24%, and about 37,500 with XDR-TB. With only a low percentage of MDR-TB cases being treated, the actual number of people who do not tolerate or respond to available MDR-TB drugs and so will be eligible to receive the BPaL regimen is unknown. Though the total number of people who will require the new drug may not be high, these are people who have very little alternative treatment options that are safe and efficacious. Also, the number of those who would need a pretomanid-based regimen is increasing due to rising drug resistance.

While the availability of a potent drug is welcome news, it remains to be seen if it would be made affordable, particularly in the developing countries where the burden of XDR-TB and MDR-TB is the highest. TB Alliance, a New York-based international NGO, which developed and tested the drug, has already signed an exclusive licensing agreement with a generic-drug manufacturer for high-income markets. Unlike in the case of bedaquiline, where its prohibitive cost has severely restricted access especially in the developing countries, pretomanid might become affordable. In line with the TB Alliance’s commitment to affordability and sustainable access, the drug will be licensed to multiple manufacturers in about 140 low- and middle-income countries, including India. Making the drug affordable to those with extreme form of drug resistance will be highly commendable and a desperately needed model to be followed. After all, there is a compulsion to keep the prices low and increase treatment uptake to stop the spread of highly drug-resistant TB bacteria. Studies have shown an increase in the number of new patients who are directly infected with drug-resistant bacteria.

Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning

Q1. Scarcity

(a)dearth      (b)tyranny         (c)sovereignty      (d)all        (e) None

Q2. Pretomanid

(a)paucity      (b)supremacy        (c)drug      (d)all        (e) None

Q3. Regimen 

(a)poverty      (b)novel         (c)rambunctious     (d)jurisdiction        (e) None

Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning

Q4. Prohibitive

(a)lose        b)hamper          c)allowance        d)all        e) None

Q5. Commendable

a)laudable        b)deplorable        c)back        d)all        e) None

Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.

Q6. Making the drug affordable to those with extreme form of drug resistance will be highly commendable and a desperately needed model to be followed.

(a)will be highly               (b)will be high           

(c)should highly               (d)will highly           

(e) None

Q7. After all, there is a compulsion to kept the prices low and increase treatment uptake to stop the spread of highly drug-resistant TB bacteria. 

(a) to kept the                  (b) to keep the           

(c)keep the m                   (d)o keeping the         

(e) None

Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.

In line with the TB Alliance’s commitment to ……….8……. and sustainable access, the drug will be licensed to multiple manufacturers in about 140 low- and middle-income countries, including India. Making the drug affordable to those with extreme form of drug……..9…… will be highly commendable and a desperately needed model to be followed. After all, there is a ……..10………to keep the prices low and increase treatment uptake to stop the spread of highly drug-resistant TB bacteria. 

Q8. a)arcane          b)maelstrom           c)affordability        d) all       e) None

Q9. a)especially          b) resistance           c)affect          d) all       e) None

Q10. a)compulsion          b)force           c)coercion          d) all       e) None

Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.

Q11. When the availability of a(a)/ potent drug is welcome news, it remains to(b)/ be seen if it would be made affordable, particularly(c)/ in the developing countries where the burden of XDR-TB and MDR-TB is the highest.(d)/(e)/

a) a              b) b                 c) c                     d) d                   e) e

Q12. Also, the number of(a)/ those who would need a pretomanid-based(b)/ regimen is increasing(C)/ rising drug resistance(d)/(e)/

a) a              b) b                 c) c                     d) d                   e) e

Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.

a) Also, the number of those who would need a pretomanid-based regimen is increasing due to rising drug resistance.

b) According to the World Health Organisation, in 2017, there were an estimated 4.5 lakh people across the world with MDR-TB, of which India accounted for 24%, and about 37,500 with XDR-TB. 

c) Though the total number of people who will require the new drug may not be high, these are people who have very little alternative treatment options that are safe and efficacious. 

d) With only a low percentage of MDR-TB cases being treated, the actual number of people who do not tolerate or respond to available MDR-TB drugs and so will be eligible to receive the BPaL regimen is unknown.    

e) While the availability of a potent drug is welcome news, it remains to be seen if it would be made affordable, particularly in the developing countries where the burden of XDR-TB and MDR-TB is the highest.

Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?

a) A          b) B           c) C           d) D          e) E   

Q14. Which is the First step after rearrangement?

a) A            b) B            c) C           d) D        e) E

Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?

a) A        b) B        c) C         d) D           e) E

Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.

Q16. The anti-tuberculosis drug pretomanid recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration will be a game changer for treating people with ………….drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) and those who do not tolerate or respond to now available multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) drugs. 

a)harsh           b)extensively            c)detailed         d) All       e) None

Q17. Unlike 18-24 months needed to treat highly-resistant TB using nearly 20 drugs, the BPaL regimen took just six months, was better …………and more potent in clearing the bacteria.

a)tolerated        b)include        c)assort          d) All       e) None

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.

Q18. According to passage which drug is approved by FDA in last 40 year?

a)linezolid         b)pretomanid         c)bedaquiline           d)All        e) None

Q19. According to passage The all-oral, three-drug regimen has thec ure percentage?

a)78%                b)90%                c)54%             d)All        e) None

Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?

(I)  There were an estimated 4.5 lakh people across the world with MDR-TB, of which India accounted for 20%

(II) The BPaL regimen took just ten months, was better tolerated and more potent in clearing the bacteria.

(III) The safety and efficacy were tested in 1,168 patients

a) Only (III)     b) Both (I) and (II)      c) Both (II) and (III)      d) All are incorrect   e) None

 

Answers With Explanations

Ans.1, a it means the state of being scarce or in short supply; shortage.

 

Ans.2, c it means Pretomanid (INN) is an antibacterial drug of the nitroimidazole class.

 

Ans.3, d it means a prescribed course of medical treatment, diet, or exercise for the promotion or restoration of health.

 

Ans.4, c Prohibition means the action of forbidding something, especially by law. Allowance means a share or portion allotted or granted.

 

Ans.5, b commendable means deserving praise.

deplorable means deserving strong condemnation; completely unacceptable.

 

Ans.6, a is correct

 

Ans.7, b is correct.

 

Ans.8, c it means ability to be afforded; inexpensiveness.

 

Ans.9, b it means the refusal to accept or comply with something.

 

Ans.10, d it means the action or state of forcing or being forced to do something; constraint.

 

Ans.11, a In some sentences, you can use either without a great change in meaning. Generally, if you want to focus on an action that has a duration being in progress, use a while + a progressive tense.

While I was washing the dishes, my wife came home. Progressive tenses use the BE verb + a verb in ~ing form.

While I was cooking dinner, the phone rang.

I will be sleeping at 11:00 p.m. tonight, so don’t phone me.

We use while to focus on an action happening at a specific time. Therefore, the most natural verb tense to use is a progressive tense, which shows that an action is in progress at a certain time.

 

Ans.12, dThe phrase ‘due to’ tends to be overused in academic writing and, although it is becoming increasingly acceptable in modern usage, your writing will be more professional and concise if you understand when it is most appropriate. Often, ‘because’ or ‘because of’ should be used instead.

If you could substitute ‘attributable to’, ‘caused by’ or ‘resulting from’ for ‘due to’ in your sentence, then you have probably used ‘due to’ correctly. It modifies nouns and is usually preceded by the verb ‘to be’ in one form or another. For example:

‘My fitness is due to regular exercise.’

In this sentence, ‘my fitness’ is the noun and ‘due to’ follows ‘is’, a form of the verb ‘to be’.

In contrast, ‘because of’ modifies verbs. For example:

‘I drove because of the rain.’

In this sentence, ‘drove’ is the verb. It would be incorrect to say, ‘I drove due to the rain’ because there is no noun for ‘due to’ to modify in the clause ‘I drove’, and no form of the verb ‘to be’.

 

Ans.13, d is correct. Because the correct sequence is BDCAE.

 

Ans.14, b is correct.

 

Ans.15, a is correct.

 

Ans.16, b it means in a way that covers or affects a large area.

 

Ans.17, a it means allow the existence, occurrence, or practice of (something that one dislikes or disagrees with) without interference.

 

Ans.18, b according to passage b is correct.

 

Ans.19, b according to passage b is correct.

 

Ans.20, a according to passage a is correct.

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