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 The Hindu: 29 June 2019

Primary colours: on Democratic Party and 2020 U.S. election

The Democratic Party is struggling to provide an alternative to xenophobic populism

The crowded stage of 24 aspirants for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 U.S. presidential election is indicative of a larger crisis that has gripped the party. The first primary debate took place over two days this week. The fragmentation of the Democratic constituency, which is increasingly less than the sum of its parts, is evident. The frontrunner is former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, who, at 76, is 30 years older than the average age of three Democratic Presidents who reinvented the party at critical junctures — John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama. Carrying the burden of his 50 years in politics, Mr. Biden was in the crossfire  of his rivals. Mr. Biden was accused of clinging on, and compromising with, racist positions and segregationists in the past. His positions, indefensible by the present standards of justice and progress, were taken in a different era and century. That the Democratic Party is re-litigating these issues in a 21st century primary contest with the same man at the centre is a sign of its inability to evolve a forward-looking agenda articulated in appealing and inspiring idioms.

California Senator Kamala Harris gained significant momentum for her bid with narrations of moving personal experiences that echoed the protracted struggles for justice and equality in America. Ms. Harris and Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren are two women candidates in the fray with comparable agendas that propose some fundamental restructuring of the American political economy. They will be competing with Bernie Sanders, who nearly felled Hillary Clinton in the 2016 primaries, to be the flag-bearer of the progressive strain within the Democratic spectrum, and potentially the candidate. Mr. Sanders’s trailblazing campaign in 2016 de-stigmatised socialism for many, but that has not resolved the central question that baffles American Democrats: how to deal with globalised capitalism. Resolutions to a number of issues such as border security, immigration, healthcare, global trade and minimum wages are predicated on renegotiating the terms of American capitalism and its democracy. The New Deal politics of Franklin Roosevelt that built American welfarism withered over the decades and the tensions between capitalism and democracy came to the fore. The challenge before American Democrats is to confront this question head on and offer futuristic solutions rather than lamenting over the lost order, which is far more arduous than harping on cultural questions. Attempts in that direction were feeble and guarded during the first primary debate. Whether or not the U.S. will have a platform other than xenophobic populism to regroup will depend on how Democrats get their act together.

Directions (1-2): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.

Q1. California Senator Kamala Harris gained(a)/ significant momentum for her bid with narrations(b)/ of moving personal experiences that echoed(c)/ the protracted struggles for justice and equality in America(d)/(e)

  1. a) a              b) b                 c) c                     d) d                   e) e

Q2. Whether or not the U.S.(a)/have a platform other(b)/ than xenophobic populism to regroup(c)/ will depend on how Democrats get their act together(d)/(e)

  1. a) a              b) b                 c) c                     d) d                   e) e

Directions (3-5): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 3 to 5. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.

The …..3….. is former U.S. Vice President Joe Biden, who, at 76, is 30 years older than the average age of three Democratic Presidents who reinvented the party at critical ….4…. — John F. Kennedy, Bill Clinton and Barack Obama. Carrying the burden of his 50 years in politics, Mr. Biden was in the …..5…. of his rivals. Mr. Biden was accused of clinging on, and compromising with, racist positions and segregationists in the past.

Q3.  a)virile         b)front runner    c)quench     d) all     e) None

Q4. a)junctures    b)slake             c)bellicose    d) all      e) None

Q5. a)endow       b)churlish          c)crossfire    d) all      e) None

Directions (6-8): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.

(a) They will be competing with Bernie Sanders, who nearly felled Hillary Clinton in the 2016 primaries, to be the flag-bearer of the progressive strain within the Democratic spectrum, and potentially the candidate.

(b) Mr. Sanders’s trailblazing campaign in 2016 de-stigmatised socialism for many, but that has not resolved the central question that baffles American Democrats: how to deal with globalised capitalism.

(c) Ms. Harris and Massachusetts Senator Elizabeth Warren are two women candidates in the fray with comparable agendas that propose some fundamental restructuring of the American political economy.

(d) California Senator Kamala Harris gained significant momentum for her bid with narrations of moving personal experiences that echoed the protracted struggles for justice and equality in America.

Q6. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?

  1. a) A          b) B           c) C                 d) D          e) E  

Q7. Which is the THIRD step after rearrangement?

  1. a) A           b) B              c) C                d) D             e) E

Q8. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?

  1. a) A            b) B              c) C               d) D           e) E

Directions (9-10): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.

Q9. The New Deal politics of Franklin Roosevelt that built American welfarism …….. over the decades and the tensions between capitalism and democracy came to the fore.

a)quell     b)knack            c)withered       d) All     e) None

Q10. Whether or not the U.S. will have a platform other than …….. populism to regroup will depend on how Democrats get their act together.

a)stingy    b)discussant     c)xenophobic   d) All     e) None

Direction (11-12): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.

Q11.  His positions, indefensible by the present standards of justice and progress, taken in a different era and century.

a)was taken in a different   

b) taken in a different       

c)has been taken in a different

d)were taken in a different            

e) None

Q12. A crowded stage of 24 aspirants for the Democratic nomination for the 2020 U.S. presidential election is indicative of a larger crisis that has gripped the party.

a)The crowded stage of 24 aspirants   

b) Crowded stage of 24 aspirants       

c)The crowd stage of 24 aspirants

d)A crowded stage of 24 aspirants            

e) None

Directions (13-15) choose the similar meaning

Q13. fragmentation

  1. a) dusky            b)turbid     c) cracked         d)All        e) None

Q14. frontrunner

a)front runner       b)vague      c)dorsal             d)All         e) None

Q15.Lamenting

a)sorrowful           b)convex     c)zany               d)All         e) None

Directions: (16-17) choose the opposite meaning

Q16. Segregationist

a)wrath    b)crass      c)comradeship    d)chide       e) None

Q17. confront

a)allure    b)blemish   c) evade            d)uncouth     e) None

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.

Q18. According to passage, why Kamala Harris gained significant momentum? for her bid with narrations of moving personal experiences that echoed the protracted struggles for justice and equality in America.

a)for she struggles for justice and equality     

b)because she struggles for border security, immigration, healthcare   

c)  trailblazing campaign in 2016 de-stigmatised socialism       

d)All   

e) None

Q19. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?

(I) U.S. will have a platform other than xenophobic populism

(II) Mr. Biden was in the crossfire of his rivals.

(III) crowded stage of 25 aspirants for the Democratic nomination for the 2020

a)Only (I)    

b) Both (I) and (II)     

c) Both (II) and (III)      

d) All are incorrect   

e) None

Q20. Who has not resolved the central question that baffles Democrats about how to deal with globalised capitalism. ?

a)Mr. Sanders   

b)Kamala Harris   

c)Bill Clinton   

d) Joe Biden    

e) None

 

Answers With Explanation

 

 

Ans.1, e no error.

Ans.2, b this sentence is in future Perfect Continuous Tense. so, use will before have.

Ans.3, b it means the contestant that is leading in a race or other competition.

Ans.4, a a particular point in events or time.

Ans. 5, c it means gunfire from two or more directions passing through the same area.

Ans.6, c is correct.DCAB

Ans.7, a is correct.

Ans.8, b is correct.

Ans.9, c dry and shrivelled.

Ans.10, c having or showing a dislike of or prejudice against people from other countries.

Ans.11, d  I was vs. if I were. For example, which of the following two choices is correct.

If I was a better cook, I could entertain more.

If I were a better cook, I could entertain more.

Ans.12, a Use “the” with any noun when the meaning is specific; for example, when the noun names the only one (or one) of a kind.

Adam was the first man (the only ‘first man’).

Ans.13, c the process or state of breaking or being broken into fragments.

Ans.14, a it means the contestant that is leading in a race or other competition.

Ans.15, a it means express passionate grief about.

Ans.16, c  Segregationist relating to or advocating the policy of enforced separation of different racial groups. comradeship means an intimate friend or associate

Ans. 17, c confront means come face to face with (someone) with hostile or argumentative intent. evade means escape or avoid (someone or something), especially by guile or trickery.

Ans.18, a according to passage a is correct.

Ans.19, b according to passage b is correct.

Ans.20, a is correct.

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