Everything From A Single Para | English Aptitude Test

The Mint Opinion

These Questions Completely based on Single “Outlook” Editorial. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand. 


Outlook : 20 August 2019

Govt Must Boost Research In Social Sciences To Preserve Ancient Knowledge

Innovation and research in higher education is one of the most important aspects of the education policy unveiled by the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by Narendra Modi. Human resource development minister Ramesh Pokhriyal ‘Nishank’ has also spoken about strengthening research and innovation in higher education during his meetings with vice-chancellors and directors. The HRD minister has also tried to assert the value of our ancient knowledge and requested to weave it into contemporary research aimed at rectifying an emerging crisis caused by modernity. But most of the time he emphasised on evolving research and innovation which may also contain traditional knowledge of various communities of Indian society. The draft of the New Education Policy carries this spirit. The problem encouraging research and innovation in higher education is two-fold. One is the constant decrease of funding in research and innovation in social sciences in Indian institutions. Secondly, the pressure of producing own internal resources is creating worries among scholars, intellectuals and social sciences. One can clearly see that research and innovation in natural science or in the science sector are taking up the bulk of the funding. On the other hand, funding for research and innovation in social sciences is not proportionate. But social science research also needs funding for extensive and long-term fieldwork. Exploring ideas from traditional knowledge also needs deep fieldwork, which includes documenting the lives of people with knowledge of different practices among various communities.

The ancient knowledge on which the HRD minister has emphasised a great deal is not just textual. Some of them are being practised by various communities in different parts of India. The “Jyotish” or astrology tradition in India is also not homogenous. Various communities practice it in their own ways. In south India, we find many a kind of “Jyotish” or knowledge of predicting the future. Buddhists have their own knowledge on this. Even among Buddhist, there are various traditions of knowing the bhavishya (future). Some of this knowledge also evolved during their practice. Social scientists need to document these knowledge traditions; they can analyse new innovations being added to them and look at the possibilities of their use and reuse in contemporary time. The people who administer funding for educational institution usually miss these points and think that social science research doesn’t need much funding. The need for doing original and people-centric research, the requirement of sufficient funding is now being realised by institutions of higher education in India.

The HRD ministry is trying to link research and teaching to enhance various kinds of skills. We have many communities who practice traditional skills for their livelihood. If the government is eager to reinvent these traditional skills of the people based on the need of our time, we need to document these traditional skills with their latent nuances. For that, social science research in the universities and research institutes could be strengthened. The ideas, quality and funding are three components required for strengthening social science research in higher academic institutions. Institutions like Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), Tata Institute of Social Science, Mumbai, the Centre for the Study of Developing Society, Delhi, and Centre for the Study of Social Science, Calcutta have strong traditions of social science research traditions.

The HRD ministry can think of special support to institutions which own strong traditions and high quality in social science research. The ministry can also plan a new survey of the institutions doing excellent work in the field of social science research. Then, the ministry can think of evolving these research institutes as centres of excellence or eminence in social science. The efforts and inclination Ramesh Pokhriyal may lead the country in this direction and help us evolve the knowledge based on our constant interaction with tradition and modernity. How the HRD ministry balances natural science research and social science research in the domain of higher education in India will be worth watching.

Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning

Q1. Homogenous

(a)congruent      (b)purpose           (c)alacrity       (d)all        (e) None

Q2. Contemporary 

(a)longer             (b)extant         (c)innovation   (d)all        (e) None

Q3. Nuances

(a)contain       (b)decrease         (c)gradation       (d)all        (e) None

Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning

Q4. Inclination

(a)bane      (b)amaze         (c)aversion     (d)all        (e) None

Q5. Eminence

(a)mediocrity      (b)surreal         (c)trite       (d)all        (e) None

Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.

Q6. The ministry should also plan a new survey of the institutions doing excellent work in the field of social science research.

(a)The ministry can              (b)The ministry             

(c)The ministry should          (d)The ministry could         

(e) None

Q7. Some of this knowledge also evolved during their practice. Social scientists need to document these knowledge traditions; they can analyse new innovations being added to them and look at the possibilities of their use and reuse in contemporary time.

(a) being added to                 (b) be added to               

(c) was added to                    (d) added to               

(e) None

Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.

The people who……..8…….. funding for educational institution usually miss these points and think that social science research doesn’t need much funding. The need for doing original and people-centric research, the requirement of …….9……… funding is now being realised by institutions of higher education in India. The HRD ministry is trying to link research and teaching to enhance various kinds of skills. We have many communities who practice ……….10…….. skills for their livelihood. If the government is eager to reinvent these traditional skills of the people based on the need of our time, we need to document these traditional skills with their latent nuances. 

Q8. (a)moderate         (b)arrest         (c) administer       (d) all       (e) None

Q9. (a)sufficient         (b)unreal         (c)respective          (d) all      (e) None

Q10. (a)vagarious        (b)traditional   (c)rhetoric           (d) all       e) None

Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.

Q11. Innovation and research in higher(a)/ education is one of the most important aspect of(b)/ the education policy unveiled by the(c)/ National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government led by Narendra Modi(d)/(e)/ 

(a) a              (b) b                 (c) c                     (d) d                   (e) e

Q12. Secondly, the(a)/ pressure of producing own internal(b)/ resources is creating worries between scholars, (c)/intellectuals and social sciences(d)/(e)/

(a) a              (b) b                 (c) c                     (d) d                   (e) e

Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.

a) On the other hand, funding for research and innovation in social sciences is not proportionate.    

b) Secondly, the pressure of producing own internal resources is creating worries among scholars, intellectuals and social sciences.   

c) The problem encouraging research and innovation in higher education is two-fold. 

d) One is the constant decrease of funding in research and innovation in social sciences in Indian institutions. 

e) One can clearly see that research and innovation in natural science or in the science sector are taking up the bulk of the funding.    

Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?

a) A          b) B           c) C           d) D          e) E  

Q14. Which is the Third step after rearrangement?

a) A            b) B            c) C           d) D        e) E

Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?

a) A        b) B        c) C         d) D           e) E

Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.

Q16. …………….. ideas from traditional knowledge also needs deep fieldwork, which includes documenting the lives of people with knowledge of different practices among various communities.

(a)emigrant           (b)imminent         

(c)Exploring           (d) All       

(e) None

Q17. The ancient knowledge on which the HRD minister has ……….. a great deal is not just textual. 

(a)humongous        (b)emphasised       

(c)ludicrous            (d) All       

(e) None

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.

Q18. According to passage what is the problem encouraging research and innovation in higher education?

a)constant decrease of funding in research and innovation         

(b)pressure of producing own internal resources is creating worries         

(c) exploring ideas from traditional knowledge also needs deep fieldwork        (d)All       

(e) both a & b

Q19. According to passage people who administer funding for educational institution left which ideas ?

a) social science research doesn’t need much funding     

(b)requirement of sufficient funding is now being realised by institutions of higher education in India         

(c)The draft of the New Education Policy carries this spirit         

(d)All       

(e) None

Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?

(I)  Even among Buddhist, there are single tradition of knowing the bhavishya 

(II) “Jyotish” or astrology tradition in India is also homogenous.

(III) HRD ministry balances natural science research and social science research in the domain of higher education

(a) Only (III)   

(b) Both (I) and (II)     

(c) Both (II) and (III)     

(d) All are incorrect   

(e) None

 

Answers With Explanation

 

Ans.1, a it means of the same kind; alike. Or denoting a process involving substances in the same phase (solid, liquid, or gaseous).

 

Ans.2, b it means living or occurring at the same time.

 

Ans.3, c it means a subtle difference in or shade of meaning, expression, or sound.

Ans.4, c Inclination means a person’s natural tendency or urge to act or feel in a particular way; a disposition. Aversion means a strong dislike or disinclination.

 

Ans.5, a Eminence meaning fame or acknowledged superiority within a particular sphere. Mediocrity means the quality or state of being mediocre.

 

Ans.6, a replace can with should. “Can” is one of the most commonly used modal verbs in English. It can be used to express ability or opportunity, to request or offer permission, and to show possibility or impossibility.

Examples:

I can ride a horse. ability

We can stay with my brother when we are in Paris. opportunity

She cannot stay out after 10 PM. permission.

 

Ans.7, a is correct.

 

Ans.8, c it means manage and be responsible for the running of (a business, organization, etc.).

 

Ans.9, a it means enough; adequate.

 

Ans.10, b it means existing in or as part of a tradition; long-established.

 

Ans.11, b aspect will be removed by aspects, The verb fight has to be plural here. The reason is that the relative clause has to refer to soldiers, not one. The fact that their is used should already be considered evidence of this (or it would have been his).

If who fights for their country referred to one of the soldiers, that means the paratactic (= with coordinate clauses) equivalent would be thus:

He is [ [one of the soldiers] who fights for their country].

He is one of the soldiers, and he fights for their country.

But what we really mean by that sentence is this:

He is one of [the soldiers who fight for their country

There are soldiers who fight for their country, and he is one of them.

 

Ans.12, c replace between with among, It is often taught that “between” is used for 2 items and “among” for 3 or more.

But this is not completely accurate. The more accurate difference is this:

Between is used when naming distinct, individual items (can be 2, 3, or more)

Among is used when the items are part of a group, or are not specifically named (MUST be 3 or more)

This example will help illustrate the difference:

The negotiations between Brazil, Argentina, and Chile are going well.

The negotiations among the countries of South America are going well.

 

Ans.13, d is correct. Because the correct sequence is CDBEA.

 

Ans.14, b is correct.

 

Ans.15, e is correct.

 

Ans.16, c it means travel through (an unfamiliar area) in order to learn about it.

Ans.17, b it means give special importance or value to (something) in speaking or writing.

 

Ans.18, e according to passage e is correct.

 

Ans.19, a according to passage a is correct.

 

Ans.20, a according to passage a is correct.

 

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