Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- The Mint 20/09/2019
These Questions Completely based on Single “The Mint Editorial”. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand the meaning of the paragraph and also it will give you a deep insight about how they framed the paragraph and how to attempt questions properly.
The Mint Editorial : 20 September 2019
Title: e-Cigarette ban: Why regulation of the emerging industry was difficult in India?
Government foresaw challenges in regulating the burgeoning industry of e- cigarettes in India but with consumers’ estimates started hovering around 10-15%, a complete ban on the vaping came into force, government officials said on Thursday.
Electronic-cigarettes are battery-operated devices that produce aerosol by heating a solution containing nicotine, which is the addictive substance in combustible cigarettes. These include all forms of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), Heat Not Burn Products, e-Hookah and the like devices.
India currently has the second largest number of tobacco users (268 million or 28.6% of all adults in India) in the world – of these at least 12 lakh die every year from tobacco-related diseases according to government data. The data also states that total direct and indirect cost of diseases attributable to tobacco is ₹1.04 lakh crore ($17 billion) in 2011 or 1.16% of India’s GDP.
“India is already the second largest consumer of tobacco. With e- cigarettes, it was being seen that this new industry was picking up fast here. Currently there are barely 10-15% of consumers and it has a potential to increase further. As e- cigarettes are equally harmful, the vaping industry is promoting a new addiction when the country is already struggling with all forms of tobacco addiction,” said Ravi Mehrotra, Chief Executive Officer at Indian Cancer Research Consortium, Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR).
Even if the government wanted it, couldn’t have regulated e- cigarettes in a scenario when tobacco control is difficult. Despite efforts such as spreading awareness and big pictorial warning, tobacco is causing harm to users. It was a better idea to stop it before it becomes another problem,” he said.
e-Cigarette, with its design and flavours was already getting extremely popular in schoolgoing children globally, in India government surveys, through school authorities, found that it was in schoolbags of children and looked innocuous like a pen drive. Also children were pooling in money to buy these and indulge in group smoking.
“We were concerned about its rising prevalence and with challenges faced in enforcement of tobacco laws this product which was odourless, smokeless and left no residue would be too difficult to control. The Government thought it appropriate to nip it in bud before it becomes too big to control as presently number of users is less, there is no domestic manufacturing therefore the Industry favourite arguments of loss of livelihood would hold no ground,” said a senior union health ministry official.
About 18 states and two Union Territories in India i.e. Gujarat, Punjab, Karnataka, Haryana, Mizoram, Kerala, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh, Puducherry, Rajasthan, Meghalaya, Nagaland and Odisha already banned the use and sale of e-cigarettes, vape pens and d-Hookah due to health harms.
The ICMR also recommended a complete ban on e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), based on currently available scientific evidence. As per the ICMR recent paper, it was noted that e-cigarettes and other such devices contained not only nicotine solution, which was highly addictive, but also harmful ingredients such as flavoring agents and vaporisers.
Use of ENDS or e-cigarettes has documented adverse effects on humans, which include DNA damage; carcinogenic, cellular, molecular and immunological toxicity, respiratory, cardiovascular and neurological disorders, and adverse impact on fetal development and pregnancy, according to ICMR.
The Health Ministry Ordinance does not refer to cultivation, manufacturing of tobacco or nicotine or its export. Presently India does not manufacture or export e-cigarettes. It is being imported and therefore the Ordinance does not impact the livelihood of tobacco and nicotine, farmers, manufacturers, traders etc,” Bhavna B Mukhopadhyay, Chief Executive, Voluntary Health Association of India.
Doctors have also negated the idea of harm reduction through ENDS claiming there are no authentic studies to show that it helps. “To counter withdrawal symptoms of smoking, nicotine (2mg) has been approved to be used under medical supervision for a short period of time. There are very few reports of long term addiction to nicotine tablets or gums. Over- the – counter sale of E cigarette will promote easy and unregulated access to very high dosage of nicotine for recreational use rather than medicinal use,” said Pankaj Chaturvedi, Professor and Surgeon, Department of Head Neck Surgery, Tata Memorial Center.
Nearly 80% of those who start e-cigarette to quit cigarettes can’t quit the e-cigarette. It deprives a quitter of nicotine free life despite quitting cigarettes successfully. Contrary to claims of e-Cigarette lobby, e-cigarette has not been approved as a cessation drug or tool. There is no conclusive study to support the claims of e-cigarette lobby regarding its medical benefits,” he said.
Acording to a new study by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, published in Science Daily journal in August 2019, smoking e-cigarettes, also called vaping, has been marketed as a safe alternative to tobacco cigarettes and is rising in popularity among non-smoking adolescents. However, a single e-cigarette can be harmful to the body’s blood vessels — even when the vapour is entirely nicotine-free.
The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has on Wednesday approved the Promulgation of the Prohibition of Electronic Cigarettes (production, manufacture, import, export, transport, sale, distribution, storage and advertisement) Ordinance, 2019.
Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning
Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning
Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence.
Q6. The Government thought it appropriate to nip bud before it becomes too big to control as presently number of users is less.
a) nip it in bud
b) nip it bud
c) nip bud
d) nip of the bud
e) nip from bud
Q7. We were concerned about its rising prevalence and with challenges faced in enforcement of tobacco laws this product which was odourless, smokeless and left no residue would be too difficult to control.
a) too difficult
b) too difficult to
c) so difficult to
d) so difficult that
e) to difficult for
Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning.
The ICMR also recommended a complete……………….8……… on e-cigarettes and other electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), based on currently available scientific ………….9……….. As per the ICMR recent paper, it was noted that e-cigarettes and other such devices contained not only nicotine solution, which was highly ………10………, but also harmful ingredients such as flavoring agents and vaporisers.
Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. To counter withdrawal symptoms(a)/ of smoking, nicotine (2mg) has been(b)/ approved to be used under medical (c)/supervision for a short period of time(d)/(e)
Q12. There are very(a)/ a few reports of long(b)/ term addiction to(c)/ nicotine tablets or gums(d)/(e)/
Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
a) Smoking e-cigarettes, also called vaping, has been marketed as a safe alternative to tobacco cigarettes and is rising in popularity among non-smoking adolescents.
b) There is no conclusive study to support the claims of e-cigarette lobby regarding its medical benefits,” he said.
c) According to a new study by researchers in the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, published in Science Daily journal in August 2019.
d) Nearly 80% of those who start e-cigarette to quit cigarettes can’t quit the e-cigarette. It deprives a quitter of nicotine free life despite quitting cigarettes successfully.
e) Contrary to claims of e-Cigarette lobby, e-cigarette has not been approved as a cessation drug or tool.
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?
Q14. Which is the Third step after rearrangement?
Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct.
Q16.The Union Cabinet, chaired by the Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has on Wednesday approved the ………… of the Prohibition of Electronic Cigarettes
Q17. E-Cigarette, with its design and …………….. was already getting extremely popular in schoolgoing children globally, in India government surveys.
Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.
Q18. According to the ICMR recent paper which ingredients making e-cigarettes very harmful?
a) nicotine solution
b) flavoring agents
e) a,b & c
Q19. According to passage what the data states total direct and indirect cost of diseases attributable to tobacco ?
b)1.04 lakh crore
e)2.16% of India’s GDP.
Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I)India currently has the third largest number of tobacco users
(II) About 19 states and two Union Territories in India banned the use and sale of e-cigarettes
(III) e- cigarettes in India consumers estimates started hovering around 10-15%,
a) Only (III)
b) Both (I) and (II)
c) Both (II) and (III)
d) Only (II)
e) All are correct
Answers With Explanation
Ans.1, c it means capable of catching fire and burning; inflammable; flammable.
Ans.2, d it means the act of compelling observance of or compliance with a law, rule, or obligation.
Ans.3, e it means remain in one place in the air.
Ans.4, a Burgeon means begin to grow or increase rapidly; flourish. Lessen means become or make smaller in size or amount.
Ans.5, c Innocuous means not harmful or offensive. obnoxious means extremely unpleasant.
Ans.6, a is correct. Because this the Idiom which means To stop, cease, or prevent something at the beginning or early phase, before it becomes too difficult or unmanageable.
Ans.7, b The first meaning is “also” or “besides”; the second meaning is “excessively” or “extra”. In addition, some people use it to mean “very”.
Too has the opposite meaning. Too means more than needed, more than necessary, or more than enough. Too is a negative expression.
Ans.8, e it means officially or legally prohibit (something).
Ans.9, c it means the available body of facts or information indicating whether a belief or proposition is true or valid.
Ans.10, b it means (of a substance or activity) causing or likely to cause someone to become addicted.
Ans.11, e no error.
Ans.12, b use few in place of a few”I have a few friends” is just the same as saying “I have some friends”.
“I have few friends”, however, implies that you have only a few friends (as opposed to many). In some contexts (not always!), it can also imply that you don’t feel very well about it, that you wish you had more friends.
Also, note that there is a very common expression “quite a few”, which is a trap for foreign learners because it looks like it should mean “rather few, very few” — but it does not. It means the exact opposite thing: “a large or significant number, many”. So, saying “I have quite a few friends” is the same as saying “I have quite a lot of friends”.
Let’s have a look at two more examples:
“A few people think that smoking is healthy.”
Some people think that smoking is healthy.
Ans.13, e is correct. Because correct sequence is DEBCA.
Ans.14, b is correct.
Ans.15, c is correct.
Ans.16, e it means to spread beliefs or ideas among a lot of people
Ans.17, c it means the distinctive taste of a food or drink.
Ans.18, e according to passage e is correct.
Ans.19, b according to passage e is correct
Ans.20, a according to passage e is correct