Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- The Hindu 18/09/2019

The Hindu

Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- The Hindu 18/09/2019

These Questions Completely based on Single “The Hindu Editorial”. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand the meaning of the paragraph and also it will give you a deep insight about how they framed the paragraph and how to attempt questions properly. 

The Hindu Editorial : 18 September 2019

Title: Deadly spread: On ‘vaccine hesitancy’

Subject: Overcoming ‘vaccine hesitancy’ can reduce the global spread of measles infection
With a 30% increase in measles cases worldwide in 2018, the World Health Organization, in January 2019, included ‘vaccine hesitancy’ as one of the 10 threats to global health this year. The threat from vaccine hesitancy, which is defined as the “reluctance or refusal to vaccinate despite the availability of vaccines”, only appears to have grown more dangerous to public health.
After a surge in measles cases in 2018, there have been around 3,65,000 measles cases reported from 182 countries in the first six months of 2019. The biggest increase, of 900% in the first six months this year compared with the same period last year, has been from the WHO African region, with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Madagascar and Nigeria accounting for most cases.
There has been a sharp increase in the WHO European region too with 90,000 cases recorded in the first six months — more than the numbers recorded for the whole of 2018. The infection spread in the European region has been unprecedented in recent years — 1,74,000 cases from 49 of the 53 countries between January 2018 and June 2019. Last month the U.K., Greece, the Czech Republic and Albania lost their measles elimination status.
A 2018 report on vaccine confidence among the European Union member states shows why vaccine coverage has not been increasing in the European region to reach over 90% to offer protection even to those not vaccinated. It found younger people (18-34 years) and those with less education are less likely to agree that the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe.
According to a March 2019 report, only 52% respondents from 28 EU member states agree that vaccines are definitely effective in preventing diseases, while 33% felt they were probably effective. More alarming is that 48% of the respondents believed that vaccines cause serious side effects and 38% think vaccines actually cause the disease that they are supposed to protect against.
A striking similarity was seen in India too. A 2018 study found low awareness to be the main reason why 45% of children missed different vaccinations in 121 Indian districts that have higher rates of unimmunised children. While 24% did not get vaccinated due to apprehension about adverse effects, 11% were reluctant to get immunised for reasons other than fear of adverse effects.
Thus, much work remains to be done to address misinformation. With social media playing a crucial role in spreading vaccine disinformation, the commitment by Facebook to “reduce distribution” of vaccine misinformation will be helpful in winning the war against vaccine deniers. Measles vaccine not only provides lifelong protection against the virus but also reduces mortality from other childhood infections. This is because measles viruses kill immune cells, leaving the child vulnerable to infectious diseases for two to three years.

Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning
Q1. Immunized
a)bode
b)inoculate
c)carnage
d)vagarious
e)None

Q2. Vaccine
a)atonement
b)undulating
c)upsurge
d)hypodermic
e)None

Q3. Preventing
a)other
b)span
c)putrefy
d)avert
e)None

Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning
Q4. Distribution
a)enlarge
b)humors
c)compendium
d)all
e)None

Q5. Apprehension
a)horizon
b)credence
c)degree
d)all
e)None

Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.
Q6. Thus more work remains to be done to address misinformation.
a)Thus work
b)Thus many work
c)Thus more work
d)Thus much work
e)None

Q7. Measles vaccine not only provides lifelong protection against the virus reduces but also mortality from other childhood infections.
a)reduces also
b)reduces but also
c)but also reduces
d)reduces
e)None

Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.
A 2018 study found low …………8………. to be the main reason why 45% of children missed different vaccinations in 121 Indian districts that have …………..9……… rates of unimmunised children. While 24% did not get vaccinated due to apprehension about adverse effects, 11% were …………10………. to get immunised for reasons other than fear of adverse effects. Thus, much work remains to be done to address misinformation.
Q8.
a)callous
b)awareness
c)fervor
d)all
e)None

Q9.
a)higher
b)uptick
c)grow
d)acrobat
e)None

Q10.
a)urge
b)expand
c)swell
d)reluctant
e)None

Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. A 2018 report on vaccine(a)/ confidence among the European Union(b)/ member states shows why vaccine coverage(c)/ has not been increasing in the European region(d)/(e)
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q12. Last month the(a)/ U.K., Greece, the Czech Republic(b)/ and Albania lost their(c)/ measles elimination status(d)/(e)/
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
a) A 2018 report on vaccine confidence among the European Union member states shows why vaccine coverage has not been increasing in the European region to reach over 90% to offer protection even to those not vaccinated.
b) According to a March 2019 report, only 52% respondents from 28 EU member states agree that vaccines are definitely effective in preventing diseases, while 33% felt they were probably effective.
c) More alarming is that 48% of the respondents believed that vaccines cause serious side effects and 38% think vaccines actually cause the disease that they are supposed to protect against.
d) It found younger people (18-34 years) and those with less education are less likely to agree that the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine is safe.
e) A striking similarity was seen in India too.
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement? 
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q14. Which is the Third step after rearrangement?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.
Q16. With social media playing a ………….. role in spreading vaccine disinformation, the commitment by Facebook to reduce distribution.
a)enlarge
b)crucial
c)novel
d)daub
e)None

Q17. There has been a sharp ……………in the WHO European region too with 90,000 cases recorded in the first six months, more than the numbers recorded for the whole of 2018.
a)huge
b)enormous
c)become
d)increase
e)None

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.

Q18. According to the World Health Organisation what is one of the 10 threats to global health this year?
a)measles vaccine hesitancy
b)reluctance or refusal to vaccinate
c)vaccine hesitancy
d)all of above
e)None

Q19. According to passage what is the percentage of people who think vaccines actually cause the disease that they are supposed to protect against?
a)42 %
b)38 %
c)48 %
d)52 %
e)None

Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I)There have been around 3,65,000 measles cases reported from 182 countries
(II)WHO European region too with 90,000 cases recorded in the first seven month
(III)While 24% did not get vaccinated due to apprehension about adverse effects
a) Only (III)
b) Both (I) and (II)
c) Both (I) and (III)
d) All are incorrect
e) None

Answers With Explanation

 

Ans.1, b it means make (a person or animal) immune to infection, typically by inoculation.
Ans.2, c it means a substance used to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity against one or several diseases, prepared from the causative agent of a disease, its products, or a synthetic substitute, treated to act as an antigen without inducing the disease.
Ans.3, d it means keep (something) from happening.
Ans.4, b Distribution means the action of sharing something out among a number of recipients. compendium means a collection of concise but detailed information about a particular subject, especially in a book or other publication.
Ans.5, b Apprehension means anxiety or fear that something bad or unpleasant will happen.Credence means belief in or acceptance of something as true.
Ans.6, d Much is used to show a great quantity of things we cannot count (uncountable nouns). Or it is used to ask about the quantity of such things.

We had expected much from him.
How much milk is there in the glass?
More is a comparative term for quantity or extent that is used with reference to a previous quantity or against an established reference.

He is more focused on his ambition now. (more than before)
They seem more committed than your team. (‘your team’ is a reference)
Ans.7, c When using not only . . . but also in a sentence, parallelism should be the goal. It means that the words following both parts of this correlative conjunction (i.e., not only and but also) should belong to the same parts of speech. For example, if a verb follows not only, then a verb should also follow but also. Using different parts of speech after each part of not only . . . but also makes the sentence imbalanced and, frankly, just awkward. Consider the examples below:

He’s not only intelligent but also has a great sense of humor.
He’s not only intelligent but also funny.
Ans.8, b it means knowledge or perception of a situation or fact.
Ans.9, a A greater proportion of people with first degrees are now going on to study for higher degrees.
Ans.10, d it means unwilling and hesitant; disinclined.
Ans.11, b use among in place of between
It is often taught that “between” is used for 2 items and “among” for 3 or more.

But this is not completely accurate. The more accurate difference is this:

Between is used when naming distinct, individual items (can be 2, 3, or more)
Among is used when the items are part of a group, or are not specifically named (MUST be 3 or more)
This example will help illustrate the difference:

The negotiations between Brazil, Argentina, and Chile are going well.

The negotiations among the countries of South America are going well.
Ans.12, e no error.
Ans.13, d is correct. Correct sequence is ADBCE.
Ans.14, b is correct.
Ans.15, c is correct.
Ans.16, b it means decisive or critical, especially in the success or failure of something.
Ans.17, d it means become or make greater in size, amount, or degree.
Ans.18, a according to passage a is correct.
Ans.19, b according to passage a is correct.
Ans.20, c according to passage a is correct.

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