Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- Outlook 17/09/2019
These Questions Completely based on Single “Outlook”. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand the meaning of the paragraph and also it will give you a deep insight about how they framed the paragraph and how to attempt questions properly.
Outlook : 17 September 2019
Over the last few weeks, we have been reading about the economy slowing down with companies cutting production and piling up inventory and jobs being lost. Former RBI Governor Bimal Jalan called it a cyclical slowdown and said that it may take 1-2 years to get back to normal.
A few days ago, industry leaders called for Rs one lakh crore stimulus to revive the investment cycle. A few industrialists want an immediate GST cut to revive the auto sector demand while others want it to be implemented later, when BS VI fuel norms kick in.
Several economic indicators point towards a long-term slowdown, which is a result of the policies of the past decades. Finance Minister met the industry during the drafting of the BJP manifesto earlier this year, then again during the vote on account, then before the budget, and now again recently. Despite the unprecedented four meetings in the past six months, the result is the same – the slowdown is aggravating.
Also, we must realise that the sectoral stimulus is not going to solve the issue of the slowdown. It can be at best temporary, though I doubt, that easy money will help much. Our economic problem is akin to stiffness in the joints and economists and industrialists are suggesting giving it a pair of good sneakers to make it run. Well, we need to address the real issue.
Last year, I looked at various data sets. I realised that India was passing through a tough time due to poor policies of the past and so, the issues were basically structural. Now, cyclical issues have added to the problem. With our integration with the global trade, the global trade wars and protectionist policies as well as the impact of climate change have had their influence on the Indian economy. The enforcement agencies going overboard in India too has a dampening effect.
In my book, ‘Your Vote is not Enough’, I looked at all the options to revive the economy with a long-term perspective and the truth is that we don’t have many options on our table. Those who are asking for one lakh crore stimulus are just concerned about one or two sectors, but the money will go waste, if the issue is not addressed holistically and the root cause of the problem not addressed.
For sure it is Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s problem, but not his fault. The person who received the Bharat Ratna recently knows well that wrong and lopsided policies for decades created wealth, but only in a few hands, leading to growth sans jobs. The growth during the past regimes was ‘cyclical’, and so, the current economic slow-down is ‘structural’.
According to my multiple factor analysis, about 15 crores of the total 130+ crore population are middle class with discretionary spending capacity, and these numbers cannot boost demand that the country needs, no matter if we cut the repo rate or give a one lakh crore stimulus.
Also, if we don’t address the structural and cyclical issues soon in a comprehensive manner, ‘reality’ (of a slowdown) and ‘perception’ (things not going to improve), will lead to a ‘negative sentiment’ (people will post-pone investment/ spending decisions). This may happen by Diwali and the numbers will come down further. This does not bode well for the India story as investors will then move in the reverse gear. Right now they have only halted.
So, what do we need to do? According to my analysis, with the critical opportunity being missed in the 2019 budget, we would need Rs 4 lakh crore investments annually till 2022 to re-start the economy and propel it to a high double-digit growth. In fact, massive investment in just the infra-sector would not yield the desired outcome
Most important is, how and where this investment goes. It certainly cannot be in the form of tax cuts. I have delved in my book on how money goes into district-level investments across sectors and if done in a planned manner, this can take our growth to above 12 per cent in the medium term (3-5 years) and also address the issue of creating 1.2 crore jobs a year.
In fact, this slowdown is a fantastic opportunity to re-look at the theoretical economic policies and create a new model of structural (not just cyclical) growth. India has the potential to grow between 12-16 per cent per year reviving critical sectors for a structural growth.
Also, by next year, we will have at least two manufacturing giants relocating their production base to India from China. India will get the much-needed boost in FDI investment. But the lethargic bureaucracy still remains a speed-breaker to leverage the massive opportunity emerging out of the trade war between the United States and China.
With Modi as Prime Minister, India has an able leader at the helm, who is both the face and force for India. I am quite optimistic that the slowdown will serve as an opportunity to not only jump start the economy, but also propel it to the next level of double-digit growth and turn India into a developed economy in the next two decades. The truth is, that It’s a 1991 moment for India, and, it cannot be business as usual. Can we change the reality, perception and the resultant sentiment? What we do in the next 60 days will tell.
Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning
Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning
Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.
Q6. The global trade wars and protectionist policies as well as the impact of climate change have had their influence on the Indian economy.
b)change have had
Q7. We has been reading about the economy slowing down with companies cutting production and piling up inventory and jobs being lost.
b)We have been
c)We has been
Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.
Also, if we don’t address the …………..8……… and cyclical issues soon in a comprehensive manner, ‘reality’ (of a slowdown) and ‘………..9……….’ (things not going to improve), will lead to a ‘negative sentiment’ (people will post-pone investment/ spending decisions). This may happen by Diwali and the numbers will come down further. This does not bode well for the India story as ………..10……… will then move in the reverse gear.
Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. Although the unprecedented(a)/ four meetings in the past six months(b)/ the result is the same(c)/ the slowdown is aggravating(d)/(e)
Q12. I have delved in my book(a)/ on how money goes into(b)/ district-level investments across(c)/ sectors and if done in a planned manner(d)/(e)/
Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
a) The truth is, that It’s a 1991 moment for India, and, it cannot be business as usual. Can we change the reality, perception and the resultant sentiment.
b) I am quite optimistic that the slowdown will serve as an opportunity to not only jump start the economy.
c) But the lethargic bureaucracy still remains a speed-breaker to leverage the massive opportunity emerging out of the trade war between the United States and China.
d) But also propel it to the next level of double-digit growth and turn India into a developed economy in the next two decades.
e) With Modi as Prime Minister, India has an able leader at the helm, who is both the face and force for India.
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?
Q14. Which is the Third step after rearrangement?
Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.
Q16. Our economic problem is akin to …………… in the joints and economists and industrialists are suggesting giving it a pair of good sneakers to make it run.
Q17.The enforcement agencies going overboard in India too has a …………. effect.
Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.
Q18. According to passage in order to create 1.2 crore jobs a year what measures should we take?
a)create a new model of structural
b)money goes district-level investments across sectors
c)relook at the theoretical economic policies
d)all of above
Q19. According to passage on what author has suggested for the economy?
a)4 lakh of crore investments annually till 2022
b)massive investment in the infra-sector
c)one lakh crore stimulus in auto sector
d)all of above
Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I)we must realise that the sectoral stimulus is not going to solve the issue of the slowdown.
(II) That It’s a 1991 moment for India, and, it cannot be business as usual
(III)The issues were basically structural.
a) Only (III)
b) Both (I) and (II)
c) Both (II) and (III)
d) All are correct
Answers With Explanation
Ans.1, a it means a public declaration of policy and aims, especially one issued before an election by a political party or candidate.
Ans.2, c it means of similar character.
Ans.3, b it means the act of compelling observance of or compliance with a law, rule, or obligation.
Ans.4, b Lopsided means with one side lower or smaller than the other. Unbiased meaning showing no prejudice for or against something; impartial.
Ans.5, c Discretionary means available for use at the discretion of the user. Obligatory means required by a legal, moral, or other rule; compulsory.
Ans.6, b This is a way of using the present perfect tense in English to take an event from the past and connect it to the present. This is a technique describing an event that has not necessarily been completed.
If you say, “I had to study a lot this week”, it indicates that the act of studying was started and completed. However, by saying, “I have had a lot of studying this week”, it indicates that while you had a lot of studying so far this week, there might be more studying to come.
Ans.7, c it means Has been” and “have been” are both in the present perfect tense. “Has been” is used in the third-person singular and “have been” is used for first- and second-person singular and all plural uses. The present perfect tense refers to an action that began at some time in the past and is still in progress. For example, if I started studying art when I was 13 years old and I am still studying art, I would say “I have been studying art since I was 13 years old.
Ans.8, a it means relating to or forming part of the structure of a building or other item.
Ans.9, d it means the ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through the senses.
Ans.10, c it means a person or organization that puts money into financial schemes, property, etc. with the expectation of achieving a profit.
Ans.11, a Although + action, + unexpected result
Unexpected Result + although + action
Although she is pretty, she doesn’t have a boyfriend.
Despite + noun/gerund, + unexpected result
Despite the weather, we went on a picnic.
Ans.12, e no error.
Ans.13, e is correct. CEBDA is correct sequence.
Ans.14, b is correct.
Ans.15, d is correct.
Ans.16, a it means inability to move easily and without pain.
Ans.17, c it means make slightly wet.
Ans.18, b according to passage b is correct.
Ans.19, a according to passage a is correct.
Ans.20, d according to passage d is correct.