Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- The Mint 10/09/2019
These Questions Completely based on Single “The Mint Editorial”. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand.
The Mint Editorial : 10 September 2019
Subject: The many myths of Kashmir and the subversive role of Pakistan
The Indian government’s recent decision to revoke Kashmir’s special semi-autonomous status has raised fears of yet another conflict with Pakistan over the disputed territory.
But in order to understand the implications of the events unfolding in Kashmir—a heavily militarized geopolitical tinderbox situated at the crossroads of central Asia—it is essential to dispel the many myths and misunderstandings surrounding it.
The first myth relates to the name itself. While news reports focus on the “Kashmir region,” they often fail to note that Kashmir is only a small slice of the affected territory called Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), which also includes the sprawling areas of Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan.
Moreover, calling J&K a “Muslim-majority” region fails to reflect just how ethnically, culturally, and religiously diverse it is. Indeed, while Kashmir is majority Muslim, Jammu is majority Hindu; and the vast, sparsely populated Ladakh is traditionally Buddhist.
Gilgit-Baltistan is also predominantly Muslim—Shia Muslim, to be precise (though Pakistan’s government has for decades been encouraging Sunni Muslims to relocate there and gradually form a majority).
J&K residents who speak the Kashmiri language (Koshur) are concentrated mainly in the Indian-administered, densely populated, predominantly Sunni-Muslim Kashmir Valley, which has become a hotbed of Pakistan-backed jihadists fighting to establish an Islamic emirate.
In early 1990, the jihadists launched a rapid and bloody campaign which drove virtually the entire native Hindu community out of the territory. Since then, the Islamists have been systematically replacing the Valley’s syncretic traditions with Wahhabi/Salafi culture.
Yet another common misunderstanding is that India and Pakistan are the only actors vying for control in J&K. In reality, the region is split among India (which holds 45%), Pakistan (which controls 35%) and China (which occupies 20%).
Only India claims the entire region, as well it should: the princely state of J&K lawfully merged with the country under the 1947 Indian Independence Act, which partitioned British India into independent India and Pakistan. Thus, the notion that in revoking Kashmir’s special status, India has effectively “annexed” the territory is just another myth. The Pakistani- and Chinese-held portions of J&K are essentially the spoils of separate wars of aggressions waged by Pakistan and China against India in the period from the late 1940s to the early 1960s.
Yet Pakistan and China, both revanchist states, are not only committed to retaining control over the territories they already grabbed; they want to seize even more. Pakistan’s terrorism-driven asymmetric warfare is aimed at securing the Kashmir Valley. The military conflicts Pakistan initiated against India in 1965 and 1999 failed to deliver territorial gains. China, for its part, advances its claims to several Indian-administered areas of Ladakh through furtive, incremental and increasingly frequent territorial incursions.
As the J&K issue has undermined both countries’ relations with India, it has cemented their longstanding strategic nexus with each other. In 1963, Pakistan ceded a segment of its own territory in the J&K region to China, which had earlier occupied Ladakh’s Switzerland-sized Aksai Chin Plateau. It is the only case of one country giving another a sizable chunk of the territory that it captured in a war with a third country (India, in 1948).
Today, China has thousands of People’s Liberation Army troops stationed in the Pakistani-held part of J&K. So, beyond controlling its own section of J&K, which serves as a vital link between Xinjiang and Tibet, China benefits from an “economic corridor” through Pakistani-held J&K territory to Pakistan’s Chinese-controlled Gwadar port. The corridor connects the overland and maritime routes of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
China and Pakistan have hypocritically protested India’s revocation of J&K’s special status, even though neither country has granted any autonomy to its portion of the region. And, in fact, it was Pakistan’s relentless support for terrorism in the region that drove India to make the change, which will enable its federal government to take greater responsibility for J&K’s security.
J&K’s new structure—with Jammu and Kashmir as a union territory with an elected legislature, and Ladakh as a territory ruled directly by India’s central government—aims specifically to compartmentalize the region’s territorial disputes, and could support India’s ability to counter aggression from China or Pakistan. The change was approved overwhelmingly by India’s Parliament.
Overseas critics, however, have condemned the move, including India’s efforts to ensure security during the potentially tumultuous transition. But it is worth noting that India allows media free access to its J&K territory, whereas Pakistan requires foreign journalists to obtain a military-approved “no-objection certificate.” China has never allowed international media into its portion of J&K.
To be sure, it is a difficult time for local people: telecommunications and internet service have been disrupted, a virtual curfew has been imposed in some areas, and thousands of troops have descended on the region. But these measures are a response to the presence of large numbers of Pakistan-backed terrorists. If Pakistan halts its destabilizing activities, India will have no need to exert such forceful control over J&K.
The fact is that India is wedged between two nuclear-armed allies that routinely defy fundamental international rules and norms, including respect for existing frontiers and territorial sovereignty. Until China, the world’s most powerful autocracy, and Pakistan, a [hotbed] of jihadist terrorism, change their ways, India will have little choice but to take all necessary steps to protect itself.
Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning
Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning
Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.
Q6. As the J&K issue has undermined both countries’ relations with India, it has cemented their longstanding strategic nexus with each other.
b)with each other
Q7. It is case of one country giving another a sizable chunk of the territory that it captured in a war with a third country.
a)the only case
b)It is the only case
c)It is the case
d)It is case
Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.
Today, China has thousands of People’s Liberation Army ………..8…….. stationed in the Pakistani-held part of J&K. So, beyond controlling its own section of J&K, which serves as a ……….9………link between Xinjiang and Tibet, China benefits from an “economic corridor” through Pakistani-held J&K territory to Pakistan’s Chinese-controlled Gwadar port. The ……….10……….. connects the overland and maritime routes of China’s Belt and Road Initiative.
Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. Already another common(a)/ misunderstanding is that India(b)/ and Pakistan are the only(c)/ actors vying for control in J&K(d)/(e)/
Q12. J&K residents who speak the Kashmiri language(a)/ (Koshur) are concentrated mainly(b)/ in the Indian-administered, densely populated(c)/ predominantly Sunni-Muslim Kashmir Valley(d)/(e)
Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
a) The first myth relates to the name itself. While news reports focus on the “Kashmir region,” they often fail to note that Kashmir is only a small slice.
b) Moreover, calling J&K a “Muslim-majority” region fails to reflect just how ethnically, culturally, and religiously diverse it is.
c) Indeed, while Kashmir is majority Muslim, Jammu is majority Hindu; and the vast, sparsely populated Ladakh is traditionally Buddhist.
d) Of the affected territory called Jammu and Kashmir (J&K), which also includes the sprawling areas of Ladakh and Gilgit-Baltistan.
e) Gilgit-Baltistan is also predominantly Muslim—Shia Muslim, to be precise (though Pakistan’s government has for decades been encouraging Sunni Muslims to relocate there and gradually form a majority).
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement?
Q14. Which is the Third step after rearrangement?
Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.
Q16. As the J&K issue has undermined both countries’ relations with India, it has …………… their longstanding strategic nexus with each other.
Q17. Overseas critics, however, have condemned the move, including India’s efforts to ensure security during the potentially tumultuous ………….
Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.
Q18. According to passage what is the is the reason of revocation of Article 370 & 35 a by government?
a)compartmentalize the region’s territorial disputes
b)support India’s ability to counter aggression from China or Pakistan
c)India is wedged between two nuclear-armed allies
d)both a & b
Q19. According to passage China’s Belt and Road Initiative connects which corridors?
a)Ladakh’s Switzerland-sized Aksai Chin Plateau
b)several Indian-administered areas
c)overland and maritime routes
Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I)China benefits from an “economic corridor” through Pakistani-held J&K territory to Pakistan’s Chinese-controlled Gwadar port.
(II)India (which holds 45%), Pakistan (which controls 33%) and China (which occupies 22%).
(III)In 1963, Pakistan ceded a segment of its own territory in the J&K region to China
a) Only (III)
b) Both (I) and (II)
c) Both (I) and (III)
d) All are correct
Answers With Explanation
Ans.1 a it means a box containing tinder, flint, a steel, and other items for kindling fires Or a potentially explosive place or situation.
Ans.2, c it means combining different religions, cultures, or ideas.
Ans.3, d it means of or relating to a policy designed to recover lost territory or status
Ans.4, a Tumultuous means making an uproar or loud, confused noise. Transquility means the quality or state of being tranquil; calm.
Ans.5, d Nexus meaning a connection or series of connections linking two or more things. Ebb means gradually decrease.
Ans.6, b The words another and other mean the same thing, except that another is used with a singular noun and other is used with uncountable and plural nouns:
She’s going to the cinema with another friend.
She’s going to the cinema with other friends.
Ans.7, c Only is an adjective or adverb.Only as an adjective
We use only as an adjective to mean that there is just one or very few of something, or that there are no others:
He was the only person in the room.
Only as an adverb
We use only as an adverb to mean that something is limited to some people, things, an amount or an activity
This phone is only available in Japan.
Ans.8, d it means soldiers or armed forces.
Ans.9, b it means absolutely necessary; essential.
Ans.10, d it means a long passage in a building from which doors lead into rooms.
Ans.11, a use yet in place of already. We use already to refer to something which has happened or may have happened before the moment of speaking. Already can sometimes suggest surprise on the part of the speaker, that something is unexpected:
Is it seven o’clock already? (The speaker didn’t expect it to be so late.)
We use yet most commonly in questions and negatives, to talk about things which are expected but which have not happened:
Is it seven o’clock yet? (The speaker thinks that probably it’s almost seven o’clock.)
A:Where will you be staying?
B:I haven’t decided yet, but somewhere in the city centre.
Ans.12, e no error.
Ans.13, d is correct. ADBCE is the correct sequence.
Ans.14, b is correct.
Ans.15, c is correct.
Ans.16, d it means settle or establish firmly.
Ans.17, b it means the process or a period of changing from one state or condition to another.
Ans.18, d according to passage d is correct.
Ans.19, c according to passage c is correct.
Ans.20, c according to passage c is correct.