Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- Economics Times 07/09/2019

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Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- Economics Times 07/09/2019

These Questions Completely based on Single “Economics Times Editorial. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand.

Economics Times Editorial : 07 September 2019

Title: Getting states to release payments

One of the seriously useful measures announced by finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman to counter the economic slowdown was releasing outstanding dues of the government to companies that had done work for it or supplied things for it. For the central government, she said,.`30,000 crore of dues would be released. She went on to say that central public sector enterprises, too, would release payments to those who have done work for them. But what of state governments and state-level public enterprises?
Held-up payments in the states choke the finances of small companies that depend on government orders for the bulk of their business. How can the Centre persuade the states to follow its example and release outstanding payments?
The Centre has been trying to use the Finance Commission to centralise governance, shifting resources and powers from the states to the Centre, such as by getting the states to share the burden of defence spending and recommending transfer of health from the Constitution’s States List to the Concurrent List. Releasing outstanding dues to small and medium enterprises, whose survival depends on receiving these monies, is far nobler a goal to pursue using the Finance Commission than such erosion of federalism.
In the interest of sound finance, even without any formal change in its terms of reference, the Finance Commission can recommend an additional weightage, in the interse distribution of devolved resources among states, for clearing the backlog of payments by state governments. The commission could figure out the precise parameter to be deployed, for example, how many months’ worth of average monthly claims on the government remain unpaid, and penalise states for delaying payments.

The Centre could offer short-term credit to the states to enable them to clear their dues, these advances to be adjusted against devolutions in the remainder of the year, so that the Centre’s fiscal deficit is not aggravated. The boost in economic activity induced by releasing a host of enterprises from a resource crunch would yield additional taxes as well.

Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning
Q1. Bulk
a)state
b)lodge
c)amplitude
d)all
e)None

Q2. Erosion
a)author
b)abrasion
c)occupant
d)tenant
e)None

Q3. Aggravated
a)distinct
b)vague
c)all
d)intense
e)None

Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning
Q4. Crunch
a)distinct
b)transquill
c)outflow
d)all
e)None

Q5. Dues
a)retreat
b)lorry
c)inapt
d)all
e)None

Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.
Q6. Held-up payments in the states choke the finances of small companies that depend on government orders for the bulk of their business.
a)depend
b)this depend
c)those depend
d)that depend
e)None

Q7. The Centre has been trying to use the Finance Commission to centralise governance, shifting resources and powers from the states to the Centre, like by getting the states to share the burden
a)by getting
b)as well as by getting
c)such as by getting
d)like by getting
e)None

Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.
The Centre could offer short-term credit to the states to ………8………. them to clear their dues, these advances to be adjusted against ……….9……. in the remainder of the year, so that the Centre’s fiscal deficit is not aggravated. The boost in economic activity …………10……….. by releasing a host of enterprises from a resource crunch would yield additional taxes as well.
Q8.
a)healthy
b)enable
c)delicate
d)all
e)None

Q9.
a)devolution
b)aspersion
c)place
d)callous
e)None

Q10.
a)integrity
b)denigration
c)induced
d)all
e)None

Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. One of the seriously useful measure(a)/ announced by finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman(b)/ to counter the economic(c)/ slowdown was releasing outstanding dues of the government(d)/(e)/
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q12. For the(a)/ central government, she said(b)/`30,000 crore of dues(c)/ would released(d)/(e)/
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below.
a) One of the seriously useful measures announced by finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman to counter the economic slowdown was releasing outstanding dues.
b) But what of state governments and state-level public enterprises? Held-up payments in the states choke the finances of small companies that depend on government orders for the bulk of their business.
c) How can the Centre persuade the states to follow its example and release outstanding payments?
d) Of the government to companies that had done work for it or supplied things for it. For the central government, she said 30,000 crore of dues would be released.
e)She went on to say that central public sector enterprises, too, would release payments to those who have done work for them.
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement? 
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q14. Which is the Third step after rearrangement?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.
Q16. Held-up payments in the states …………… the finances of small companies that depend on government orders for the bulk of their business
a)truth
b)choke
c)modicum
d)whole
e)None

Q17. Releasing ……………….. dues to small and medium enterprises, whose survival depends on receiving these monies.
a)ounce
b)speck
c)lot
d)outstanding
e)None

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.

Q18. According to passage why Centre has been trying to use the Finance Commission to centralize governance?
a)so that Centre’s fiscal deficit is not aggravate
b)want to share the burden
c)want to add in concurrent list
d)both b & c
e)None

Q19. According to passage on how can centre help the state to clear its dues?
a)add them in concurrent list
b)offer short-term credit
c)figure out the precise parameter to be deployed,
d)all of above
e)None

Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I)the Finance Commission can recommend an additional weightage, in the interse distribution of devolved resources among states
(II)the central government, she said,.`30,000 crore of dues would be released
(III)? Held-up payments in the states choke the finances of small companies
a) Only (III)
b) Both (I) and (II)
c) Both (II) and (III)
d) All are correct
e) None

Answers With Explanation

Ans.1, c it means the mass or size of something large.
Ans.2, b it means the process of eroding or being eroded by wind, water, or other natural agents.
Ans.3, d it means (of an offence) made more serious by attendant circumstances.
Ans.4, b Crunch means crush (a hard or brittle foodstuff) with the teeth, making a loud but muffled grinding sound. Tranquil means not showing or feeling nervousness, anger, or other strong emotions.
Ans.5, c dues means expected at or planned for at a certain time. Inapt means not suitable or appropriate in the circumstances.
Ans.6, d
We use these and those with plural nouns:
You can use any one of these computers. (these + plural noun)
I need to paint those windows. (those + plural noun)
We use this and that with singular and uncountable nouns:
Try to repeat this exercise every morning and evening. (this + singular countable noun)
I’ve never been to that part of France. (that + singular countable noun)
Ans.7, c When you want to give an example for something you are writing about, you might use “like” as a conjunction.

GDP in developing countries like Vietnam will continue growing at a high rate.
In professional writing, however, you could use the phrase “such as” because it sounds more formal.

GDP in developing countries such as Vietnam will continue growing at a high rate.
Ans.8, b it means give (someone) the authority or means to do something; make it possible for.
Ans.9, a it means the transfer or delegation of power to a lower level, especially by central government to local or regional administration.
Ans.10, c it means succeed in persuading or leading (someone) to do something.
Ans.11, a use measures in place of measure.
 who fights for their country referred to one of the soldiers, that means the paratactic (= with coordinate clauses) equivalent would be thus:

*He is [ [one of the soldiers] who fights for their country].
*He is one of the soldiers, and he fights for their country.
Ans.12, d use would be in place of would. We use would to make hypotheses:

when we imagine a situation:
It would be very expensive to stay in a hotel.
Ans.13, d is correct. Because the correct sequence is ADEBC.
Ans.14, e is correct.
Ans.15, b is correct.
Ans.16, a it means (of a person or animal) have severe difficulty in breathing because of a constricted or obstructed throat or a lack of air.
Ans.17, d it means exceptionally good.
Ans.18, d according to passage b is correct.
Ans.19, b according to passage b is correct.
Ans.20, d according to passage d is correct.

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