Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- The Mint Opinion 05/09/2019

The Hindu Editorial

Everything From A Single Para English Aptitude Test- The Mint Opinion 05/09/2019

These Questions Completely based on Single “The Mint” Opinion. The purpose to start this is to make you read the same paragraph again and again to understand the different types of questions like comprehension, cloze test, sentence arrangement, sentence improvement, vocab, antonyms, synonyms, fillers (all based on single paragraph) etc. Reading this paragraph while practicing these questions will help you understand.

The Mint : 05 September 2019

Subject: Ma vs Musk on the supremacy of machines over mankind

It was a rambling discussion in Shanghai last week that brought Artificial Intelligence into focus once again. In this case, it was the clearly jet-lagged Elon Musk, a technology legend and disruptor, and a very composed Jack Ma, the largest purveyor of goods over the internet.
While the discussion rambled all over, from Pong to The Matrix to Mars, it was Musk shooting down Ma’s optimism by saying that these could be “famous last words”, that caught my attention. Musk has been consistently pessimistic about AI. In another famous joust, this time with Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg, he tweeted that “his (Zuckerberg’s) understanding of the subject is pretty limited”.
AI is perhaps the hottest technology in the world right now, and certainly the most hotly debated. All of us are inundated daily on how it can either transform our lives for the better, or completely destroy us.
Depending on which side of the debate you are, AI can either take all our drudgery or our jobs, become our pets or enslave us, save us from global warming or destroy us before that does.
In all this confusion, let us first try and determine what AI is. The world became aware of something like non-human intelligence when IBM’s Deep Blue defeated the world-champion Garry Kasparov in chess in 1997.
This got reinforced when Watson, again from IBM, defeated two reigning world champions of the quiz-show Jeopardy! on live television. As a breathless New York Times wrote the following day, “From now on, if the answer is “the computer champion on “Jeopardy!” the question will be, “What is Watson?”” However, the last nail in the proverbial coffin of human superiority was dug when Google DeepMind’s Alpha Go comprehensively vanquished the all-time world champion in Go, a game infinitely more complex than chess and requiring very human talents to play.
This demonstration of deep learning, perhaps the most exciting field of AI, was what unnerved the academic and scientific world, besides reducing the (human) Go champion to tears.
So, what is AI? Gil Press, a respected journalist and researcher contends that AI’s history goes back to 1308 CE, when Catalan poet and theologian Ramon Llull perfected his method of using paper-based mechanical means to create new knowledge from a combination of concepts.
Five hundred years later emerged an 18th century hoax called the Mechanical Turk, an elaborate machine that could play chess with you and sometimes win, until people realized there was a human hidden inside it, (Amazon’s product Mechanical Turk draws its nomenclature inspiration from this, though that is another story).
The true birth of AI was perhaps in the 1950s with Alan Turing and his eponymous Turing test, which theoretically determined whether a machine was intelligent or not.
Turing’s great work gave rise to Enigma, the legendary code-breaking machine of World War II, which played a pivotal role in the Allies defeating Germany.
It was John McCarthy of MIT, one of the founding fathers of AI, who coined the term “Artificial Intelligence” and proceeded to define it at its chilling best: “A branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans.” AI, in fact, is not one technology.
It is an overarching term that comprises several sub-technologies. Machine learning (ML) is perhaps the most talked about, where a machine learns through extensive training how an apple is different from an orange, for example, but there is also natural language processing or NLP, which is at the heart of Alexa.
There is machine vision, giving rise to image recognition (IR), which helps it figure out how to spot cat videos on YouTube, and there is robotics, which is perhaps what fascinates us the most: R2D2, humanoids, Sophia and robotic soldiers. Finally, there is deep learning, the latest offspring within AI, which defeated the Go champion.
So, will AI be a boon to humankind, or the harbinger of our destruction? Will it be “our final invention” as author James Barrat famously argued, or will it be a “gift for humanity” as celebrated Chinese technologist Kai-Fu Lee contends? I believe that we yet do not know the final answer.
Every new technology that came in—computing, electricity, even motor cars—was supposed to destroy mankind as we knew it, and was proclaimed to be the end of the world. Humankind, however, managed to domesticate every new technology and use it for quantum improvements to our lifestyles, incomes and prosperity.
AI optimists such as Ma, Lee, and Zuckerberg assert that it will be no different this time. Humans will adapt to AI and use it to improve our well-being—in jobs, for example, tedious repetitive jobs will be taken by AI, and intelligent, caring and loving jobs will be done by humans.
The World Economic Forum predicts that AI will displace 75 million jobs by 2022, but will also create 133 million new ones. So, net positive.
Not true, say naysayers such as Musk, Gates and Neil Gaiman. This time, it is different. AI is the first technology that has the ability to learn and think, and even outthink us.
This ability is increasing exponentially and soon it will outpace humans. In fact, Ray Kurzweil, the famous tech futurist, has even put a date to it: 2045 will be when the Singularity happens, where AI will become equal to or more powerful than human intelligence, when, according to Wikipedia, “technological growth becomes uncontrollable and irreversible, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilisation”.

Directions (1-3) Choose the similar meaning
Q1. Purveyor
a)present
b)rebel
c)hawker
d)all
e)None

Q2. Joust
a)purpose
b)tilt
c)leave
d)all
e)None

Q3. Inundated
a)invasion
b)submission
c)bakiness
d)bombard
e)None

Directions: (4-5) choose the opposite meaning
Q4. Drudgery
a)relaxation
b)decay
c)entrance
d)all
e)None

Q5. Pivotal
a)access
b)access
c)inconsequential
d)all
e)None

Direction (6-7): Which of the following phrases given below each sentence should replace the phrase printed in bold letters to make the sentence meaningfully correct. Choose the best option among the five given alternatives that reflect the correct use of phrase in the context of the grammatically correct sentence. If the sentence is correct as it is, mark “No Error” as your answer.
Q6. Five a hundred years later emerged an 18th century hoax called the Mechanical Turk, an elaborate machine that could play chess with you and sometimes win, until people realized there was a human hidden inside it.
a)Five hundred years
b)Five a hundred years
c)Five few years
d)Five few years more
e)None

Q7. The branch of computer science concerned with making computers behave like humans.AI, in fact, is not one technology.
a)The branch of
b)A branch of
c)branch of
d)The branch
e)None

Directions (8-10): In the passage given below there are blanks which are numbered from 8 to 10. They are to be filled with the options given below the passage against each of the respective numbers. Find out the appropriate word in each case which can most suitably complete the sentence without altering its meaning. If none of the words given in options fits in, mark ‘None of these’ as your answer choice.
It is an ………8…….. term that comprises several sub-technologies. Machine learning (ML) is perhaps the most talked about, where a machine learns through …………9………training how an apple is different from an orange, for example, but there is also natural language processing or NLP, which is at the heart of Alexa. There is machine vision, giving rise to image ………10……… (IR), which helps it figure out how to spot cat videos on YouTube, and there is robotics, which is perhaps what fascinates us the most: R2D2, humanoids, Sophia and robotic soldiers. Finally, there is deep learning, the latest offspring within AI, which defeated the Go champion.
Q8.
a)overarching
b)embody
c)epitomize
d)all
e)None

Q9.
a)detestable
b)agreeable
c)extensive
d)all
e)None

Q10.
a)repugnant
b)alluring
c)glossy
d)recognition
e)None

Directions (11-12): Read each of the following sentences to find out if there is any grammatical error in it. The error, if any, will be in one part of the sentence. The number (A, B, C or d) of this part is your answer. If there is no error in the statement, then mark option (e) as your answer choice.
Q11. One of the founding father of AI(a)/, who coined the term “Artificial Intelligence”(b)/ and proceeded to define (c)/it at its chilling best(d)/(e)/
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q12. I can either take all our(a)/ drudgery or our jobs, become(b)/ our pets or enslave us, save us from global (c)/warming or destroy us before that does(d)/(e)/
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Directions (13-15): Rearrange the following sentences (a), (b), (c), (d), and (e) in the proper sequence to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below
a) So, will AI be a boon to humankind, or the harbinger of our destruction? Will it be “our final invention” as author James Barrat famously argued, or will it be a “gift for humanity” as celebrated Chinese technologist.
b) AI optimists such as Ma, Lee, and Zuckerberg assert that it will be no different this time.
c) Humankind, however, managed to domesticate every new technology and use it for quantum improvements to our lifestyles, incomes and prosperity.
d) Humankind, however, managed to domesticate every new technology and use it for quantum improvements to our lifestyles, incomes and prosperity. Kai-Fu Lee contends? I believe that we yet do not know the final answer.
e) Every new technology that came in—computing, electricity, even motor cars—was supposed to destroy mankind as we knew it, and was proclaimed to be the end of the world.
Q13. Which is the Second step after rearrangement? 

a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q14. Which is the Third step after rearrangement?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E

Q15. Which is the Fourth step after rearrangement?
a) A
b) B
c) C
d) D
e) E
Directions (16-17): In each of the following sentences, there is a blank space. Below each such sentence, there are four options with one word each. Fill up the blank with the word that makes the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If none of the four words is your answer, choose option (e) as your answer choice.
Q16. This ability is increasing ……………and soon it will outpace humans.
a)gritty
b)covetous
c)acquisitive
d)exponentially
e)None

Q17. AI will surpass us eventually and ……………, and will be aided by humans in that effort.
a)affordable
b)unwittingly
c)undulating
d)all
e)None

Directions (18-20): Answer the questions given below based on the passage.
Q18. According to passage The World Economic Forum predicts how many job we will lost till 2022?
a)75 million
b)133 million
c)123 million
d)both a & b
e) None

Q19. According to passage Ray Kurzweil what date did he put when AI will become equal to or more powerful than human intelligence?
a)2022
b)2035
c)2045
d)both a & c
e)None

Q20. Which of the following statements is/are true in context of the passage above?
(I)Every new technology that came in—computing, electricity, even motor cars was supposed to destroy mankind
(II)The true birth of AI was perhaps in the 1950s with Alan Turing
(III)I can either take all our drudgery or our jobs, become our pets or enslave us, save us from global warming or destroy us before that does.
a) Only (III)
b) Both (I) and (II)
c) Both (II) and (III)
d) All are correct
e) None

Answers With Explanation

Ans.1, c it means a person or group who spreads or promotes an idea, view, etc.
Ans.2, b it means (of a medieval knight) engage in a sporting contest in which two opponents on horseback fight with lances.
Ans.3, d it means overwhelm (someone) with things or people to be dealt with.
Ans.4, a Drudgery means hard menial or dull work. Composure means the state of being free from tension and anxiety.
Ans.5, c Pivotal means of crucial importance in relation to the development or success of something else. Inconsequential means not important or significant.
Ans.6, a We use the singular when the magnitude number is modified by few:
We need a few hundred dollars.
We need a few thousand widgets.
If we keep the object, we would put more after the number:
We need a few hundred more dollars.
We need a few thousand more widgets.
Ans.7, b A/an before a noun shows that what is referred to is not already known to the speaker, listener, writer and/or reader (it is the indefinite article):

Do you have a car?
The before a noun shows that what is referred to is already known to the speaker, listener, writer and/or reader (it is the definite article):

Where did we park the car? (The speaker and the listener know what car is being referred to.)
Ans.8, a it means comprehensive or all-embracing.
Ans.9, c it means covering or affecting a large area
Ans.10, d it means identification of someone or something or person from previous encounters or knowledge.
Ans.11, a use fathers in place of father.
The verb fight has to be plural here. The reason is that the relative clause has to refer to soldiers, not one. The fact that their is used should already be considered evidence of this (or it would have been his).

If who fights for their country referred to one of the soldiers, that means the paratactic (= with coordinate clauses) equivalent would be thus:
He is [one of the soldiers] who fights for their country].
He is one of the soldiers, and he fights for their country.
Ans.12, e no error.
Ans.13, d is correct. Because the correct sequence is ADECB.
Ans.14, e is correct.
Ans.15, c is correct.
Ans.16, d it means (with reference to an increase) more and more rapidly.
Ans.17, b it means without being aware; unintentionally.
Ans.18, a according to passage a is correct.
Ans.19, c according to passage c is correct.
Ans.20, d according to passage c is correct.

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